Monday, September 30, 2019

Tqm – Total Quality Management

Available online at http://www. journalcra. com INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH International Journal of Current Research Vol. 3, Issue, 3, pp. 149-153, March, 2011 3 ISSN: 0975-833X REVIEW ARTICLE TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN EDUCATION 1Jayakumaran, M. and 2Manoharan, C. 1Department of Management Studies, Kalasalingam University, Virudhunagar (Dt. ) Tamil Nadu, India 2Department of Education, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India ARTICLE INFO Article History: Received 18th December, 2010 Received in revised form 21st January, 2011 Accepted 29th February, 2011 Published online 13th March, 2011ABSTRACT After Second World War the United States of America was forced to improve the production of Quality of goods and services. Total Quality Management (TQM) concept was developed by an American W. EDWARDS DEMING. Still 1980s the Japanese only were concentrating in TQM concept where they dominated in world markets. There is a myth the use of TQM which is applicable o nly in Business and Industry where the production process are being made but the new concept of TQM is also applicable to Academics. Many educators strongly believe that the Deming concept provides guiding principles to make reform in educational system.Also Mr. John Joy Bonstingl, an educationalist out lines the TQM principles. Hence the authors of this paper strongly believe the TQM principles are most relevant to education.  © Copy Right, IJCR, 2011, Academic Journals. All rights reserved. Key words: Business and In Educational system Total Quality Management INTRODUCTION In any organization when the term â€Å"Quality Management principle† first it must focus on its suppliers and customers. In a TQM organization, everyone is both a customer and supplier; this confusing concept emphasizes â€Å"the systematic nature of the work in which all are involved†.In other words, teamwork and collaboration are essential. Traditionally, education has been prone to individual and departmental isolation. However, according to Bostingl, this outdated practice no longer serves us: â€Å"When I close the classroom door, those Kids are mine! † is a notion too narrow to survive in a world in which teamwork and collaboration result in high quality benefits for the greatest number of people. The application of the first pillar of TQM in education emphasizes the synergistic relationship between the â€Å"suppliers† and â€Å"customers†. Corresponding author: [email  protected] com The concept of synergy suggests that performance and production is enhanced by pooling the talent and experience of individuals. In a classroom, teacherstudent teams are the equivalent of industry’s front-line workers. The product of their successful work together is the development of the student’s capabilities, interests, and character. In one sense, the student is the teacher’s customer, as the recipient of educational services provided fo r the student’s growth and improvement.Viewed in this way, the teacher and the school are suppliers of effective learning tools, environments, and systems to the student, who is the school’s primary customer. The school is responsible for providing for the long-term educational welfare of students by teaching them how to learn and communicate in high-quality ways, how to access quality in their own work and in that of others, and how to invest in their own lifelong and life-wide learning processes by maximizing 150 International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 149-153, March, 2011 pportunities for growth in every aspect of daily life. In another sense, the student is also a worker, whose product is essentially his or her own continuous improvement and personal growth. Continuous Improvement and Self Evaluation The second pillar of TQM applied to education is the total dedication to continuous improvement, personally and collectively. Within a Total Qu ality school setting, administrators work collaboratively with their customers: teachers. The foundations of â€Å"Scientific Management† were fear, intimidation, and an adversarial approach to problem-solving.Today it is in our best interest to encourage everyone’s potential by dedicating ourselves to the continual improvement of our own abilities and those of the people with whom we work and live. Total Quality is, essentially, a win-win approach which works to everyone’s ultimate advantage. According to Deming, no human being should ever evaluate another human being. Therefore, TQM emphasizes self-improvement process. In addition, this principle also laminates to the focusing on students’ strengths, individual learning styles, and different types of intelligences.A System of Ongoing Process The third pillar of TQM as applied in education is the recognition of the organization as a system and the work done within the organization must be seen as an ongo ing process. The primary implication of this principle is that individual students and teachers are less to blame for failure than the system in which they work. Quality speaks to working on the system, which must be examined to identify and eliminate the flawed processes that allow its participants to fail.Since systems are made in the quality of those processes largely determine the quality of the resulting product. In the new paradigm of learning , continual improvement of learning outcomes replaces the outdated â€Å"teach and test† mode. Leadership The fourth TQM principle applied to education is that the success of TQM is the responsibility of top management. The school teachers must establish the context in which students can best achieve their potential through the continuous improvement that results from teachers and students working together.Teachers who emphasize content area literacy and principle-centered teaching provide the leadership, framework, and tools nece ssary for continuous improvement in the learning process. Evidences show same Business forms like American Express, ford, IBM, Motorola, Procter & Gamble, and Xerox hired university Graduates who are literate in TQM. They said in an open letter published in 1991 in the Harvard Business Review with bringing total quality to higher education. Contrary to instruction and research practices in the university. TQM is team-based. However, Faculty members, are notorious independents.So students are it’s dog-eat-dog in the classroom. Also, TQM calls for cross-functional thinking, planning, and doing. Faculties and curricula are highly specialized and professors avidly protect their turf. We might add that universities are tradition-bound, whereas TQM trumps for continuous change. Infact, TQM initiatives are appearing here and there in academia. There are a few good reasons why this may continue, though perhaps fitfully. They have to do with opportunities to innovate and explore new i nstructional and research horizons, which have strong appeal for most academics.Business, economics, engineering and related tool disciplines (information systems and mathematics/statistics), plus other professional schools, are particularly affected by total quality management. Business and Economics Colleges of business and economics include specializations in operations management, marketing, business policy and strategy, management accounting, corporate finance, financial accounting and auditing, human resource management, organizational behavior, and economics. TQM offers differing challenges and attractions for each. Operations Management TQM affects nearly all of the operations management agenda.A primary focus on modeling for efficiency gives way under TQM to planning and doing for and with the customer. The customer outlook in turn, calls for major overhauls in the operations management approach to scheduling, equipment selection, facility layout, maintenance, inventory man agement, and quality assurance. Briefly, schedules, equipment, layout, and inventory management must be geared for quick reaction to customer needs, not just to efficiency and utilization and process control must replace breakdown maintenance and delayed inspection.Operations Management professors have a special reason for heading the call of TQM. They had failed to stay abreast of an important operations management movement called Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) that emerged in industry in the 1970s. The MRP juggernaut had become OM’s leading edge in the real world of manufacturing, but for a decade OM text books and journals said little or nothing about it. To catch up and stay caught up, OM professors, in droves , joined the 151 International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 49-153, March, 2011 professional societies, where they could keep an eye on fast –changing developments. And they began publishing heavily in practitioner periodicals, whic h they fought to elevate to tenure-class status. Then, when TQM and related topics made their appearance, Operations Management faculties where not far behind marketing. In TQM thinking, the customer is the object. Which university specialty has charged of customers marketing? TQM concepts load easily into topic outlines in marketing courses and into marketing research hypotheses.In practice, marketers and salespeople have carried the burden of having to cover up for their organizations defects, late completions, and other customer service failings. As TQM kicks in with continuous improvement quality, timeliness, and so on, the burden is lifted somewhat. Each improvement is marketable—in proposals, in advertising, in sales promotions. For example, Ford Motor Company’s slogan, now a decade old is, â€Å"Quality Is Job One†. Putting a more positive face on their function holds appeal for marketing professors and students as well as practicing marketers.Business po licy and strategy system favored filling stockrooms, even with wrong models and substandard quality, to absorb overhead costs. JIT, however, puts the damper on stockroom filling, and total quality shrinks the production of lesserquality goods. Such improvements show up perversely as bad performance(negative cost variances) in monthly cost reports. So ABC comes to the rescue. If done right, ABC will assign less overhead cost (rework, scrap ,stock management, and so on) to products undergoing continuous improvement – especially in cycle time.A few management accounting professors are finding still another challenge to pursue: working out ways of putting the cost of quality into financial statements. I have raised questions on the wisdom of this( Schonberger 1994). Corporate finance A related area ripe for research is how to give quality, responsiveness, flexibility, and customer satisfaction their due in capital budgeting instead of relegating such factors to the last page of t he capital expenditure proposal under the heading â€Å"Intangible†.Financial accounting and auditing Such important TQM-oriented topics as benchmarking, quality function deployement, and customer-centered strategic principles need an academic home. These topics seem general enough to find their way into instruction in several disciplines. However, they deal specifically with matters central to the business policy/strategy area: directing internal resources toward enhanced competitiveness and customer retention. To a certain extent, total quality becomes strategy—and perhaps should be taught that way.Management accounting TQM does not permit cost, efficiency, and resource use to remain as primary operational measures of its performance. Quality in all dimensions dominates. Because management accountants have been the guardians of performance measurement, the challenge of reinventing performance management is largely theirs. Thus, a decade ago leading management account ing professors. Notably Harvard professor Robert Kaplan, began arguing that performance should be measured in non-financial terms, including quality, inventory levels and deliverability.Although some academics in management accounting may not welcome the idea of non-momentary measures, most have been easily caught up in the excitement of activity-based costing(ABC). ABC arose because just-in-time (JIT) production—the quick—response component of TQM—throws conventional costing into a tailspin. The old costing In this TQM era, the financial side of accounting has not generated the same degree of dynamism as the management accounting side. This does not mean there is no awareness of deficiencies. Income statements and balance sheets have not served investors well.Too often yesterday’s buy list becomes tomorrow’s basket cases. The â€Å"financials,† as require by generally accepted accounting principles, simply do not distinguish between the fir m whose quality-related competitiveness is deteriorating and its continuously improving competitor Though many academics, and legions of securities analysts, continually seek better ways of assessing the strength of a business, breakthrough ideas that recognize quality-centered competitiveness are not yet forthcoming. Human Resource Management (HRM) Human resource policies have traditionally favored specialization.Their aim is to narrowly specify jobs through division of labour, then hire people to fill the jobs, give them scant training, and keep them in that specialty for life. HRM has been taught that way and practiced that way. On the other hand, TQM requires cross-training, job improve it, or even communicate about it. Labour, long blamed for protection of work rules, is generally proving no to be the obstacle to their removal. One reason is that cross-training and learning add lines to one’s resume, which is the key to work-life 152 International Journal of Current Rese arch, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 149-153, March, 2011 ecurity, (of greater concern today than mere job security). HR departments in superior companies are making the transition toward TQM-based practices featuring never-ending training and development for all employees. Organizational behavior (OB) At first, the community of OB scholars watched in amazement as TQM and floor distance. However, when TQM hit the back office and then the entire service sector the stampede began. Today, treatises on new TQM related topics have become common in OB academic journals. For example, Organizational Dynamics devoted its entire Spring 1992 issue to the theme.These topics include employee involvement and empowerment , non-hierarchical, non-functional organization structures, and debates about motivating continuous improvement. An additional pursuit is reformulation of conventional OB concepts suchas team building, conflict resolution, and equity theory for use in TQM implementation. Economics In the ea rly years of JIT, Economists thought it an anomaly that inventories kept falling instead of following the economic cycle. Now it is clear that the pattern is broken. Continuous improvement reduces the need for inventory protection, so inventories just go down.Economists have much to do to revise their models. More significantly, economists may need to expand their world view. In conventional economic thought management has no role, economic activity is a function of fiscal and monetary policies of government and business. Tinkering with taxation spending and a few other money-denominated factors explains everything. No more Economists must accept that management can make a difference. Japan’s fixation on quality management is especially convincing, and now the same story repeats itself in other countries.Tool Disciplines Information systems and mathematics/statistics, indispensable tools for the end of aforementioned academic areas are also affected by TQM. Information system s practitioners can play an important role in their employers’ partners-in-quality efforts with customers and suppliers. Cumputer-aided design networks, external bar-coding, point of sale scanning, electronic data interchange, automatic funds transfer and satellite communication with freight haulers are among the IS devices that help link firms with suppliers and ustomers. These expanded uses of IS will naturally interest information systems academics. Mathematics/Statistics Near the core of TQM is a set of tools known as statistical process control(SPC). AT the low end of the SPC methods are the â€Å"seven basic tools† easy to learn and essential in the daily work of every employee. For a time, universities looked the other way while the community colleges nearly 1400 strong in the US and Canada put together training courses in Statistical Process Control for business and industry.Now SPC is fully covered in operations management and industrial engineering textbooks, plus texts in management accounting, marketing and general management. At the high end drawing in the mathematics and statistics academics are advanced statistical methods, especially design of experiments and the related methods of Genichi Taguchi, an eminent statistician. Professional Schools All the professions from engineering to law have a mission to provide quality services. The management of the professions also must have quality as its mission.Engineering Quality control and reliability engineering are traditional teaching and research specialties. Industrial Engineering professors have their hands full propagating the old message (sometimes called little q) as well as expanded, new TQM concepts (big Q). Besides that, every department in the engineering school has the same twofold challenge: (1) teach team design, in which engineers work on project teams with other engineers, customers, suppliers, business functionaries, and the front-line employees who produce the engineer ed roducts; (2) teach the principles of design-for-quality and design-for-manufacture (DFM) and its derivatives. Related fertile research areas include design for safety, disassembly and the environment; quick design-tomarket and elimination of disruptive post-production engineering changes. Some engineering professors and graduate students are already absorbed in these topics. Conclusion Public administration, teachers college, medical school, dental school, veterinary school, library school, and law school in each of the other professional schools, quality is or should be the foremost concern.All of the professional schools in the university can benefit from adding TQM as an instructional and research topic. 153 International Journal of Current Research, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 149-153, March, 2011 What about all the remaining academic areas? The opinion of the late W. Edwards Deming is instructive. Dr. Deming agreed to allow his name to be attached to Columbia university’s De ming center for quality management. However, a condition was that the center should be multi-disciplinary.The project proceeded when the school of engineering and applied science and the department of statistics joined the graduate school of business in the endeavor. Transforming schools through Total Quality Education in Phi Delta Kappan. – Michael J. schmoker, Richard B. Wilson. Total Quality Education: Profiles of Schools that Demonstrate the power of Deming’s Management principles. – Michael J. Schmoker, Richard B. Wilson. REFERENCES Total Quality Management in Education- Edward Sallis. Total Quality Management and the school – Stephen Murgatroyd, Colin Morgan. *******

Sunday, September 29, 2019

The Native American Struggle

The Native American Struggle The way of life for the Native Americans changed greatly when the settlers arrived but they fought strongly to hold onto their sacred beliefs. No amount of influence or interference from the Europeans could change what the American Indians believed in. The natives fought long and hard to try to preserve their heritage and their lifestyles. While they are still given a small portion of land to live on, the plight of the Native American people has been going on since the settlers first set foot upon this land and continues to this day. Largest TribesAlthough they are all considered Native Americas or American Indians, there are over 550 different tribes in the United States. According to Time For Kids (2008), â€Å"Nearly 1 out of every 100 people in the U. S. is a Native American. Most live in areas west of the Mississippi. Native Americans belong to 561 tribes. The Cherokee tribe of Oklahoma is the largest. † (para. 1). The five largest tribes are; 1. Cherokee 308,000 2. Navajo 219,000 3. Chippewa 104,000 4. Sioux 103,000 5. Choctaw 82,000 Figure 1. The above shows the top five largest American Indian tribes in the Untied States.As one can see, the populations are large, yet still the American Indians do not have enough land to sustain their tribes and heritage. Note: From Time For Kids (2008). The Cherokee tribe or rather Cherokee Nation is the largest tribe, often referred to as the most advanced tribe among the American Indians. As stated on Cherokee Nation (2009), â€Å"Since earliest contact with European explorers in the 1500’s, the Cherokee Nation has been identified as one of the most advanced among Native American tribes. Cherokee culture thrived for thousands of years in the southeastern United States before European contact.After contact, Cherokee society and culture continued to develop, progressing with acquisitions from European settlers. Soon, we had shaped a bicultural government and a society that mat ched the most ‘civilized’ of the time† (para. 1). The Navajo Nation, most known for their language, is the second largest Native American tribe, located mostly in Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico. The language of the Navajo people was often considered a mystical language. According to Navajo Nation (2005), â€Å" Visitors from around the world are intrigued and mystified when they hear the Navajo language – so, too, were the enemy during World War II.Unknown to many, the Navajo language was used to create a secret code to battle the Japanese. Navajo men were selected to create codes and serve on the front line to overcome and deceive those on the other side of the battlefield. Today, these men are recognized as the famous Navajo Code Talkers, who exemplify the unequaled bravery and patriotism of the Navajo people† (para. 2). During World War II the Navajo men who used that secret code were known as Wind Talkers. The third largest tribe in the United Sta tes and probably the least known, are the Chippewa Indians.In Access Genealogy (2009), â€Å"One of the largest tribes North of Mexico, whose range was formerly along both shores of Lake Huron and Superior, extending across Minnesota Turtle Mountains, North Dakota. Although strong in numbers and occupying an extensive territory, the Chippewa were never prominent in history, owing to their remoteness from the frontier during the period of the colonial wars† (para. 1). The last two tribes in the top five are the Sioux Indians and the Choctaw Indians. The Sioux people were among the most powerful within the Native American tribes.The Sioux was also home to one of the most popular Indian chiefs, Sioux Chief Sitting Bull. The Choctaw Indians are located mostly in Oklahoma. According to Choctaw (2008), â€Å"The Choctaws were one of the largest and most advanced tribes in all of North America† (para. 1). Early Life Before the arrival of the settlers, Native Americans lived a peaceful life, hunting and living off the land. The were dependant on the resources of the land. The plains Indians in the west were around for many centuries before the settlers arrived. Most American Indians are a deep spiritual people.According to _ (2003), â€Å"The natural environment helped to shape the people's thinking and cultures as they viewed the world and the Universe in a native perspective of a physical and metaphysical reality† (para. 2). Believing in the deep powers of the land, the plains Indians were very loyal to the environment. As stated on _ (2003), â€Å"The natural environment of the Great West provided life to American Indians. It also took life! People learned that working together, and hunting together, was extremely important! Living alone on the plains meant certain death.It was a hard life, taught by Nature†(para. 3). They survived by depends and respecting the land, and together as a people. Oftentimes the men of the tribes would leave for days at time to hunt and gather food, leaving the women to farm and care for the children and elders of the tribe. The Settlers Life for the Native Americans change dramatically once the settlers landed. At first Indians greeted the settlers in Jamestown with hostility just based on the treatment they received from the Spanish, but soon after they started sharing their food.According to The Library of Congress (2003), â€Å"At first, Powhatan, leader of a confederation of tribes around the Chesapeake Bay, hoped to absorb the newcomers through hospitality and his offerings of food. As the colonists searched for instant wealth, they neglected planting corn and other work necessary to make their colony self-sufficient. They therefore grew more and more dependent on the Indians for food† (para. 1). With Captain John Smith leading the settlers in Jamestown, trade relations did not always work with the Indians.The Library of Congress (2003) states, â€Å"Unfortunately for the Indians, Smith believed that the English should treat Indians as the Spanish had: to compel them to ‘drudgery, work, and slavery,’ so English colonists could live ‘like Soldiers upon the fruit of their labor. ’ Thus, when his negotiations with Indians for food occasionally failed, Smith took what he wanted by force† (para. 2). After the Native Americans knew the English settlers were here to stay, they began to attack. Powhatan was disappointed that the settlers were not as friendly and forthcoming as the Indians were.As stated in The Library of Congress (2003), â€Å"He knew that the English â€Å"invade my people, possess my country. † Indians thus began attacking settlers, killing their livestock, and burning such crops as they planted. All the while, Powhatan claimed he simply could not control the young men who were committing these acts without his knowledge or permission† (para. 3). Soon the settlers began fighting the American In dians, forcing them of their land and more west. Once the Indians started moving west, the English and French settlers laid stake to the land. Present DayEven today the tribes struggle to maintain their heritage. They remain a highly spiritual people. Most tribes however are plagued by poverty, high rates of teen suicide, and alcoholism. Under constant scrutiny for their beliefs and religious practices, up until 1978 the were forced to either convert to Christianity or be jailed (Wikipedia 2009). Even still, as recent as 1993 the Peyote Indians were denied certain parts of their religious practices. According to Wikipedia (2009), â€Å"However, despite the passing of the Freedom of Religion Act in 1973, several practices of Native American religion were still being stifled.For example, the Peyote Indians named their tribe after the peyote cactus, which is central to their religious practices. The peyote cactus was banned by the government, however, due to its powerful hallucinogeni c effects, and thus was still outlawed to be used by the Native Americans. It was not until the Native American Free Exercise of Religion Act of 1993 was passed that the Peyote Indians could lawfully use the peyote cactus in their religious celebrations† (para. 25). Figure 2. The pie chart illustrates the top five Native American tribes that had families living in poverty in 1989. Note: From U. S.Bureau of the Census (1990). Even in recent memory the amount of Native American families that lived in poverty was very high. Native American families that live in poverty rates among the higher than any other American ethnic group in the nation. Still today, most Native American Indians face discrimination on a daily basis. According to About. com (2009), â€Å"In the U. S. , Native Americans are a â€Å"minority† racial group, and as such, they continue to face discrimination. In fact, prior to the civil rights laws, once could find three separate drinking fountains labeled â€Å"Whites,† â€Å"Colored† and â€Å"Indian† in certain states.Movie theaters were similarly split into three separate sections† (para. 3). Even though most of the land that the Native American occupies is federally protected, the American Indians have a constant struggle with the government to protect their rights as a people. About. com (2009) states, â€Å"they continue to fight to protect their rights and religious freedoms, both of which have repeatedly been threatened over the years through denial of access to religious sites, prohibitions on the use or possession of sacred objects, and restrictions on their ability to worship through ceremonial and traditional means† (para. ). In summary, even though the Native American Indians way of life has changed drastically, their beliefs and lifestyle remain the same. The European settlers made a large impact on the American Indians but it was the they that helped the early settlers truly settle in to the new land and survive the harsh weather conditions of their first few years on the new continent. Native American Indians are of strong will and deep beliefs, they still fight for their rights as a people.Even in this new century of technological advances, the Native American Indians work hard every day, from their small Indian Reservations that they call home, to preserve their heritage and their way of life.References About. com (2009). Native American Indian History and the Native American's Ongoing Fight. Retrieved February 17, 2009, from http://racerelations. about. com/od/thehierarchyofrace/a/nativeamericans. htm Access Genealogy (2009). Chippewa Indian History. Retrieved February 16, 2009, from http://www. accessgenealogy. com/native/tribes/chippewa/chippewahist. tm Cherokee Nation (2009). A Brief History of the Cherokee Nation . Retrieved January Day, 2009, from http://www. cherokee. org/Culture/57/Page/default. aspx Choctaw Indians (2008). On the Genealogical Choctaw Trail. Retrieved February 14, 2009, from http://www. choctaw. org/History/Genealogy/Genealogy. html Navajo Nation (2005). Navajo Nation History. Retrieved January 2009, from http://www. navajo. org/history. htm The Library of Congress (2003). Virginia's Early Relations with Native Americans. Retrieved February 17, 2009, from http://memory. loc. ov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/indians/indians. html Time For Kids (2008). Top 5 Largest Native American Tribes. Retrieved February 6,2009,from http://www. timeforkids. com/TFK/teachers/wr/article/0,27972,96120,00. html U. S. Bureau of the Census (1990). Characteristics of American Indians by Tribe and Language. Retrieved February 7, 2009, from http://www. census. gov/population/socdemo/race/indian/ailang2. txt Wikipedia (2009). Americanization (of Native Americans). Retrieved February 15, 2009, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Americanization_(of_Native_Americans)

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Advantages of Genetic Engineering in Animals

Advantages of Genetic Engineering in Animals How successful would the Enviro-pig be if released into the general pig population in terms of longevity of the trait and continued benefits to the environment? And do the ethical issues stacked against the Enviro-pig validate its modified presents in the genepool? DNA is the foundation of all genetic material found in every living organism on earth. Commonly known as its full name Deoxyribonucleic acid, it is an electrically neutral group of atoms held together in a chemical bond known as a molecule . In this case a biomolecule produced by a living organism composed of nucleic acid, carbohydrates and proteins . This mixture is coiled in two biopolymer strands forming adouble helix. Biopolymers being a biomolecule of a polymer , which is a large molecule, composed of monomers . These biopolymer strands are composed of thirteen nucleotide monomers bonded in a chain, in turn called a polynucleotide . Nucleotides being singular polynucleotides composed of a nucleobase (co ntaining nitrogen). Being split into four bases each nucleobase is as followed: Guanine (C 5 H 5 N 5 O): Pairing in sequence with cytosine, guanine is derived from purine. Purine is an organic compound structured from a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring (called a pyrimidine-imidazole ring ). The base is represented as ‘G’. Adenine (C 5 H 5 N 5 ): Similar to that of Guanine, Adenine is derived from purine. In addition it’s an important part of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the nitrogenous base adenine bonded to a five carbon sugar. These molecules have the ability to phosphorylise and add phosphate groups to other molecules. This allocation of phosphates allows energy to be released. It is this energy which is used in the cells of living organisms. The base is represented as ‘A’. Thymine (C 5 H 6 N 2 O 2 ): Combining with Adenine this nucleobase is often replaces with uracil in RNA . It is also the common cause of mutations in DNA. When in the presence ofultraviolet light, radiation causes alterations in the DNA molecule that inhibit normal function. These â€Å"kinks† are referred to as pyrimidine dimers . The base is represented as ‘T’. Cytosine ( C 4 H 5 N 3 O) : Pairing with guanine this base is a pyrimidine derivative. A heterocyclic aromatic ring that when as cytosine triphosphate (CTP) can performance as a co-factor to enzymes, able to transfer a phosphate to transfigure adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nucleotides of a DNA stand line up so each sugar and phosphate molecule connects. As said an adenine only pairs with a thymine and a cytosine only pairs with a guanine. The sugars are linked together by phosphate clusters via phosphodiester bonds, branching between adjacent sugar rings. The dual helix is stabilized by the bases of hydrogen bonds, before bunching together and constricting a vase line of rungs. All are curled to gether with multiple strands to form a chromosome . Being such a delicate sequence of codes , all of which contributing towards every characteristic in an organism, if altered or affect in a minor way a secession of errors and mutations can occur. Mutation is when an alteration of a nucleotide arrangement in the genome causes changes in an organism. Even if by a small change, the structural integrity of a creature can differ. But if this large sequence of coding is only effect in one base, in one strand, located in a single cell, the error theoretically should not affect the creature. However through Protein synthesis and mitosis a fault can replicate and spread.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Course Project - Report Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Course Project - Report - Assignment Example energy needs. 4) To give a personal opinion regarding the hydraulic fracturing process and the laws that should be instituted. INTRODUCTION Hydraulic fracturing refers to a process used to extract gas or oil from beneath the earth’s surface by pumping liquid at high pressure to the subsurface rocks. The pressure in this liquid is enough to fracture the rocks thus establishing interconnected networks of fractures that are then used as pores for the oil and gas to move to the bored well. It is from this well that the final extraction is done. The process has been so far effective and efficient in so far as extraction of oil and natural gas is concerned (Wilber, 2012). Nonetheless, various legal and environmental issues have been raised regarding the process. Its impacts on the environment have not augured well with a majority of the environmentalists. Similarly, various legal concerns have been raised and they vary from one state to the next. In this paper, I seek to present a r eport on the hydraulic fracturing process, the legal and environmental issues, as well as offer some of recommendations regarding the process. DISCUSSION Hydraulic fracturing process raises various issues both legally and environmentally. The water contamination by the chemicals used during the fracking process has brought out legal issues of strict liability where individuals have asserted harm from such contaminated water. In a Pennsylvanian case of Fiorentino v. Cabot Oil & Gas Corp., No. 09-cv-2284 (M.D. Pa. November 15, 2010), the plaintiff seeks action to be taken against the oil and gas company. This follows the alleged contamination of the plaintiff’s water by methane and other toxins. The court refused to dismiss this case and hence opened a look into allowing plaintiff come up with a claim of strict liability against the hydraulic fracturing companies (U.S. ENVTL. PROT. AGENCY, 2009). The other legal issue presented by the hydraulic fracturing is who is to be held r esponsible in cases of harm occasioned by the process. From the Fiorentino v. Cabot Oil & Gas, it appears that it becomes an issue to the courts to determine the liability of the fracturing company and hence seeks to follow up and develop a rule suitable for this situation. Strict liability seems to have been inapplicable in such issues from the way the defendant presents his case in these proceedings. While various states are embracing this process in gas and oil extraction, other states have banned it and hence are an illegal process. However, some states have left the discretion to the local leaders to decide whether the process should be permitted or not. Permitting such a process is done after various considerations depending on the local leaders take on the public health and safety in case of a flag to engage in the extraction process. The environmental concerns so raised by the hydraulic process are vast and alarming. First, there is a threat of contamination of the underground water brought about by the spillage of the gases and oil extracted. Most of this underground water is a source of drinking water to many, both human and the animals. In an event of contamination of the drinking water then the vast population is affected. Secondly the use of a lot of water from the ground water and the surface water during drilling and the hydraulic fracturing brings a lot of stress to these water suppliers. The drilling and fracturing

Thursday, September 26, 2019

What is meant by the term sustainable development How has this concept Essay

What is meant by the term sustainable development How has this concept contributed to the amelioration of environmental degradation - Essay Example Generally speaking, human needs must be met and economic growth must be nurtured keeping intact the available natural resources and environmental integrity (Willers, 1994, p. 1147). Requirements of both ecological balance and economical development must be satisfied. These conditions would be lasting forever or for a very long period. Hierarchial management of sustainable development is necessary and it must be able to result in the essential performance of main requirements, satisfying the various interests. It is essential to overcome the environmental pollution and its effect in aggravating the ecological situation which is a global problem (Ougolnitsky, 2009, p. 428). The concept of hierarchial controlled dynamic management has the chances of providing better decisions. The three constituents of hierarchial management are the administrative, economic and psychological. Private interests of organizations, aiming at short term interests, collide with the objective strategies of the global system (Ougolnitsky, 2009, p. 429). . This contrast in ideas needs to be solved by the hierarchial management which had better be a two tier management. The individual interests should be coordinated into a common group of interests with common objectives. Different methods are employed in the management: compulsion, impulsion and conviction (Ougolnitsky, 2009, p. 431). Compulsion is when a participant is forced to undertake or accept a common interest or objective. Impulsion is when the participant is offered the opportunities or economically advantageous background to promote the common interests. Both levels have common interests and both are equally committed in conviction. Compulsion is an inefficient method to produce a combined effort. Voluntary cooperation is evident in conviction which is actually a psychological approach and the best in the sustainable development (Ougolnitsky, 2009, p. 432). The

How shipowners deal with bad freight rates in a shipping recession and Dissertation

How shipowners deal with bad freight rates in a shipping recession and compare liner freight rates with dry bulk freight rates - Dissertation Example There are significant gaps in knowledge research on the Greek maritime shipping industry created by publicly-owned companies and lack of data on operations, pricing, and general business strategies. This study added to the limited domain of knowledge by discovering high dependency in debt, currency, exchange rates, port efficiency and asset value as it relates to price establishment during recessions. The study further identifies low dependency variables related to price-setting during difficult economic periods of recession. Unpredicted phenomenon in this industry was also identified, with a discussion of implications to this maritime shipping industry. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.1 Introduction................................................................................................................... 1.2 Research aims and objectives........................................................................................ 2.0 Literature review........................................... ................................................................. 2.1 Demand and crude oil prices.......................................................................................... ... .................................................................................................................. 2.6 Investment strategies...................................................................................................... 2.7 The competitive marketing environment........................................................................ 2.8 A discussion of knowledge gaps..................................................................................... 3.1 Research methodology.................................................................................................... 3.2 Ethical and other considerations...................................................................................... 4.1 Summary of results.......................................................................................................... 4.2 Presentation of results...................................................................................................... 5.1 Discussion of results........................................................................................................ 5.2 The nature of price setting in maritime industry.............................................................. 6.0 Conclusion........................................................................................................................ References Appendices LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: Stability of Crude Oil Shipment Demand................................................... Figure 2: Aframax Tanker Asset Values..................................................................... Figure 3: The Clearing Process of Buyer-Seller FFA Swaps..................................... Figure 4: Mean Questionnaire Scores for High Dependency Variables Related to Pricing

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Digital graphics Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Digital graphics - Assignment Example Additionally, there have been developments in printers since they were first created, where they were very slow and basic printers. They used to be expensive at the time unlike now, where one can purchase them easily. The only problem is that such printers take a long time to print and therefore, shows how much printers have upgraded but expensive. To add to this there are new printers that have come up and made currently, as well as increases speed of printing as well as lowers costs (Niemeyer, 2008, 23-144). Development of mobile phones also has a big effect on the design and creation of images. Latest mobile phones’ models have cameras, which can be used to take photos and transfer them to a computer using either Bluetooth technology or a data cable. In addition, some mobile phones have such as latest smart phones have inbuilt softwares that can be used to edit images. E-book readers have also had a great impact on the design and creation of images. E-books are now designed in such a way that they are compatible with both the computers and

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Cultural Shock Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Cultural Shock - Research Paper Example Social norms and communication characteristics are the basic element of the expectancy violation theory. Expectancy Violation Theory sees communication as the medium through which people exchange information with one another. Communication can also be used to violate the expectations of another person as either negative or positive depending upon the link between the two people. However, experts also explain this theory as in communicating with others; people generally have an expectation of the way the other person will react verbally or non-verbally. The Expectancy Violation Theory assesses the way in which we react to someone’s non-verbal behavior (Kunda and Thagard, 1996). Cultural shock is when people or a person enters into a new culture when they migrate to a new place or experience new people around them. The difficulty they have in adjusting in that culture and amongst the people is known as cultural shock. Expectancy Violation Theory closely related to cultural shock as the people who are new to the society will face difficulties in keeping expectations from the people as to what their reaction will be. As the behaviors are new, there will be vague predictions about the expectations of the people on the communications made whether verbal or non-verbal (Burgoon, 1993). When having a communication with someone’s, the reaction of the person can either be positive or negative, which means that either the person will smile or will show a rude reaction (Marques, 1990). The theory examines that the people carry expectations when they interact with others and these expectations are from the culture or the individuals in that culture. They make predictions about the non-verbal communications, and there are times when their expectations violate (Jussim et al, 1987). Personal space refers to a space that has to be maintained while interacting

Monday, September 23, 2019

Strategic Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Strategic Management - Assignment Example The existing laws and regulations have to be followed by the organization and the board of directors implementing corporate governance does not have any say in such laws. Corporate governance is a complex process that takes into account all the activities within the organization and possibly even outside the organization. It directly impacts the perceived quality of the organization among the consumers as well as the community therefore the organization uses this as a benchmark for developing the culture and rules within the organization. PART B According to me, strategy is the purpose of the organization and it aims to make sure that the organization is able to develop an edge in the market despite the increasing competition. Strategy needs to align with the vision and mission of the organization and it would be a collective effort rather than a collection of initiatives undertaken by different managers. If managers are free to develop their own strategy, they may risk losing the vi sion and mission of the organization. If however, the initiatives taken by the managers are being taken after considering the aims and vision of the organization then the action may be defined as a strategy. Strategic Management is indeed the level of managerial activity that falls between goals and tactics. It is the goals of the organization that define the strategy of the organization and strategic management on the other hand influences the tactics that the organization adopts in order to fulfill the goals identified. PART C a) Corporate governance is greatly dictated by external regulation. This is because the organization has to answer to a number of stakeholders which includes the external and the internal stakeholders also. These stakeholders demand that the organization comply with the external regulations. For example, the employees within the organization would demand that the organization comply with the Equal Employment Opportunity Act. If the organization fails to comp ly with such acts it would likely be held accountable by the law. Thus, an organization needs to consider external regulations before forming or revising its own corporate governance. b) Gamble is quite correct in his view that strong boards lead to good corporate governance. This is because it is the responsibility of the board to develop corporate governance which would later impact all level of the organization including the culture of the organization. However, Gamble did not take into account the fact that hierarchy within the organization often limits the power of the board in ensuring that the rules and regulations developed in the corporate governance are being followed properly and in the spirit that they are meant to be followed (Hill and Jones, 390). PART D In my opinion, there are only three generic strategies which are cost leadership, differentiation and segmentation. Some may increase the categories to be five in number but I believe they are just repeating the same s trategies, albeit minor changes. I do not think stuck in the middle is a strategy. I am saying this because a mix of strategy would be no strategy at all. By incorporating all aspects of the three generic strategies, the organization would lose its control over either one of the strategies. For example, consider the fact that L’Oreal introduces mascara that is believed to add extra length to the lashes as a

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Patient Safety and Quality Essay Example for Free

Patient Safety and Quality Essay The nurse involved with the caring for this family needs to be open to facts of the situation at hand by realizing that it is going to be a period of stress on Susie. At the same time, the goal is to make sure that Susie prioritizes her daily activities which will involve all three of caring for her children, taking in the additional demands of assisting her mother and promoting her health, and of course making sure her career is also focused on. As it is, Susie is overwhelmed and the nurse will need to help the family overcome any additional stress points as well as the specific illness related to her mother and so the nurse will prioritize as well. Since Susie seems to manage the household, the nurse will need to make her the key point of contact with the steps involved with making sure the family stays healthy during this period of additional anxiety. As it has happened now with her mother coming in to the family, she will need to adapt to a new lifestyle that has new demands of caretaking as described in the family structural theory. Family structural theory is a theory where a family is an open and social cultural system, which reacts and adapts to the demands placed (Grand Canyon University). This theory would be best applied by the nurse recognizing the rules and roles the family currently has and how they will need to change to encourage health promotion. Developmental stages give opportunities to family members to realize their potential (Edelman Mandle, 2010). With the children also being a priority to take care, Stage four of the Family Developmental Theory will be applied. Perhaps the nurse will need to better understand through Susie what the latter’s keys to success have been from Stage 1-3 to better help take care of the kids through this. Through these types of conversations, the nurse can help promote health throughout their family by better understanding how the cope with particular situations and helping apply new methods of care. Health promotion can best be accomplished when the nurse focuses on Susie first and then the rest of the family so that Susie can also take care of the family. Health education includes all family members, with learning activities according to each individual. General teaching goal will be same but the approaches and specific goals will be different for each family member. A nurse will have to provide different teaching to each family member. To promote health for Mrs. Jones, nurse can make a plan explaining how Mrs. Jones need to function at her highest level of capacity physically, psychologically, culturally, and spiritually. To promote Susie’s health, nurse will have to educate her on social roles, financial and occupational responsibilities, and reassessing life goals. School aged children health can be promoted by educating on staying away from harmful and unsafe environments such as drug and alcohol abuse. Also, allowing school aged children participate in family conversations and allowing them to speak increases their self-esteem which can be beneficial to Susie to decrease stress. References Edelman, C., Mandle, C. L. (2010). Health promotion throughout the life span (7th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby. â€Å"The Form and Function of The Family.† (2011). Grand Canyon Universtiy, Phoenix, AZ.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Different Perspectives for Risk Management

Different Perspectives for Risk Management 1 Purpose Risk this is defined as the combination of the probability of an event and its consequences. In all types of undertaking, there is the potential for events and consequences that constitute opportunities for benefit (upside) or threats to success (downside). Risk Management is increasingly recognised as being concerned with both positive and negative aspects of risk. Therefore this policy considers risk from both perspectives. Risk management is a central part of the B W Plant Hire and Sales Ltd strategic management. It is the process whereby we methodically address the risks attaching to their activities with the goal of achieving sustained benefit within each activity and across the portfolio of all activities. The focus of good risk management is the identification and treatment of these risks. Its objective is to add maximum sustainable value to all the activities of the organisation. It marshals the understanding of the potential upside and downside of all those factors which can affect the organisation. It increases the probability of success, and reduces both the probability of failure and the uncertainty of achieving our overall objectives. 2 Process The risks facing an organisation and its operations can result from factors both external and internal to the organisation. Risk identification is the process whereby B W Plant Hire and Sales Ltd sets out to identify its exposure to uncertainty. Risk identification is approached in a methodical way as part of the annual strategic review process to ensure that all significant activities within the organisation have been identified and all the risks flowing from these activities also defined. All associated volatility related to these activities is identified and categorised. Business activities and decisions are classified as: Strategic These concern the long-term strategic objectives of the organisation. They can be affected by such areas as capital availability, sovereign and political risks, legal and regulatory changes, reputation and changes in the physical environment. Operational These concern the day-today issues that the organisation is confronted with as it strives to deliver its strategic objectives. Financial These concern the effective management and control of the finances of the organisation and the effects of external factors such as availability of credit, foreign exchange rates, interest rate movement and other market exposures. Knowledge Based These concern the effective management and control of the knowledge resources, the production, protection and communication thereof. External factors might include the unauthorised use or abuse of intellectual property, area power failures, and competitive technology. Internal factors might be system malfunction or loss of key staff. Compliance These concern such issues as health safety, environmental, trade descriptions, consumer protection, data protection, employment practices and regulatory issues. As part of the annual strategic review each identified risk is described in a structured format is necessary to ensure a comprehensive risk identification, description and assessment process. Risk estimation is assessed as high, medium or low using the guidelines shown in the tables below. Risk identification Categorisation 1. Name of Risk 2. Impact of Risk Qualitative description of the events, their size, type number and dependencies 3. Quantification of Risk Probability and Significance 4. Potential Action for Improvement Recommendations to reduce risk Risk Consequences Threats and Opportunities High: Financial impact on the organisation is likely to exceed  £250,000 Significant impact on the organisations strategy or operational activities Significant stakeholder concern Medium Financial impact on the organisation likely to be between  £150,000 and  £350,000 Moderate impact on the organisations strategy or operational activities Moderate stakeholder concern Low Financial impact on the organisation likely to be less that  £150,000 Low impact on the organisations strategy or operational activities Low stakeholder concern

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Should the U.S. Subsidize Public Grazing? Essay -- Farming Agricultur

Should the U.S. Subsidize Public Grazing? Public grazing has sparked disagreement ever since the first cattlemen came west. Whether the criticism came from fellow ranchers and homesteaders, or from the government and environmentalists, there have always been problems with the use of public resources. The United States should subsidize grazing on public lands. Opponents to subsidized grazing cite the economic and environmental benefits that would emerge if the grazing was to be greatly reduced or stopped. However, proponents of subsidized public grazing cite equally important benefits favoring the continuation of the program. The benefits of subsidized grazing extend beyond the rancher that holds the permit. Subsidized grazing occurs when the government leases public land to a rancher for the purpose of grazing. The grazing fee on the land is usually lower than comparable private land fees. The first public grazing in the United States was created by the Forest Service through the Timberland Reserve program in 1891 (Thomas 1994). Grazing fees were not charged until 1906 (The Secretary of Agriculture & Secretary of The Interior 1986). In 1934, the Taylor Grazing Act was created to establish control over grazing on public lands. The Independent Agencies Appropriations Act of 1952 stated that the grazing fees needed to be â€Å"self-sustaining, uniform, and fair and equitable to the public and user.† (The Secretary of Agriculture & Secretary of The Interior 1986) The concept of fair to both the public and the user is where the public grazing disagreement begins. Opponents to the public grazing program insist that the program is ineffective, a waste of money, detrimental to the land, and does not benefit enough of the public. ... ...ign. (2006, October 26). Sparshott, J. (2003, December 8). Agricultural subsidies targeted. The Washington Times. Retrieved October 26, 2006, from The Beckoning (1997, February 24). The Debate of Western Ranching Economics. Retrieved October 26, 2006, from The Secretary of Agriculture & The Secretary of The Interior. (1986). Grazing Fee Review and Evaluation Final Report 1979-1985. Department of Agriculture Forest Service & Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management. 77. Thomas, H. S. (1994). History of public land grazing. Rangelands, 16(6), 250-255. Wikipedia (2006, October 24). Agricultural Subsidy Wikipedia. Retrieved October 26, 2006, from

Mononucleosis :: essays research papers

Mononucleosis Mononucleosis is an infectious disease of humans in which the blood and tissues contain mononuclear leukocytes (white blood cells with only one nucleus), either monocytes or lymphocytes. An infectious disease is a disease that can give you an infection, can be transmitted by infection without actual contact, or can be caused by a microorganism. All species of animals are afflicted with infections caused by a wide variety of organisms, from submicroscopic viruses to wormlike parasites. When a person has an infectious disease like mono the organism gains access to the patients body, survives, and then multiples. Next, the patient gets the symptoms. Then the patient may die or recover spontaneously, or the infection may respond to specific therapy. Often there is an immunity. Infectious diseases have strongly influenced the course of history on Earth. The organisms responsible for human infections are viruses. Viruses are simple life forms consisting of nucleic acid, encoding genetic information , and surface components of protein that enable them to enter cells. Viruses are unable to multiple outside of cells. Mono is found in the DNA in the body. Another name for mononucleosis is glandular fever because of the fever and swelling of the lymph nodes throughout the body. What causes mononucleosis is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is like herpes. The herpes virus also causes some cases of mono and other diseases. Mono usually occurs in adults 15 to 30 years old, but is known to appear at any age. Mono symptoms include fever, chills, fatigue, malaise, sore throat, head-aches, swelling of the lymph nodes (noticeable in the neck), and skin rashes. Liver inflammation may occur. Also, swelling of the upper eyelids is a common symptom. In some cases blood may be found in the urine. The throat is often red; a membrane, white to dark gray in color and resembling that of diphtheria, may be present. In many cases there is a petechial rash on the soft palate. Mono is mostly transmitted by oral contact with exchange of saliva, that is why it is sometimes known as the " kissing disease. " Sharing a cup is another way to get mono. It is not highly contagious. The incubation period is thought to be about 30 to 40 days. In about two/thirds of the patients the spleen is enlarged. The illness is mild to moderate, death is rare, but in some cases a patient may die of rupturing the spleen. A rash consisting of small hemorrhages or resembling measles or scarlet fever sometimes appears. Also, pneumonia occurs in about 2 percent of the infected patients.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Alfred Stieglitz Essay -- Biography Biographies Essays

Alfred Stieglitz Works Cited Missing Alfred Stieglitz was an influential photographer who spent his life fighting for the recognition of photography as a valid art form. He was a pioneering photographer, editor and gallery owner who played pivotal role in defining and shaping modernism in the United States. (Lowe 23). He took pictures in a time when photography was considered as only a scientific curiosity and not an art. As the controversy over the art value of photography became widespread, Stieglitz began to fight for the recognition of his chosen medium. This battle would last his whole life. Edward Stieglitz, father of Alfred, was born in Germany in 1833. He grew up on a farm, loved nature, and was an artist at heart. Legend has it that, independent and strong willed, Edward Stieglitz ran away from home at the age of sixteen because his mother insisted on upon starching his shirt after he had begged her not to (Lowe 23). Edward would later meet Hedwig Warner and they would have their first son, Alfred. Alfred was the first of six born to his dad Edward and mom Hedwig. As a child Alfred was remembered as a boy with thick black hair, large dark eyes, pale fine skin, a delicately modeled mouth with a strong chin (Peterson 34). In 1871 the Stieglitz family lived at 14 East 60th street in Manhattan. No buildings stood between Central Park and the Stieglitz family home. As Stieglitz got older he started to show interest in photography, posting every photo he could find on his bedroom wall. It wasn't until he got older that his photography curiosity begin to take charge of his life. Stieglitz formally started photography at the age of nineteen, during his first years at the Berlin Polytechnic School. At this time photography was in its infancy as an art form. Alfred learned the fine arts of photography by watching a local photographer in Berlin working in the store's dark room. After making a few pictures of his room and himself, he enrolled in a photochemistry course. This is where his photography career would begin. His earliest public recognition came from England and Germany. It began in 1887 when Stieglitz won the first of his many first prizes in a competition. The judge who gave him the award was Dr. P.H. Emerson, then the most widely known English advocate of photography as an art (Doty 23). Dr. Emerson later wrot... ...raphers. At the turn of the century, a new class of creative individuals, called painter- photographer emerged. This group fulfilled Stieglitz' s dream for pictorial photography. Its presence provided the movement with individuals who were trained in the established arts and who legitimized the artistic claims of pictorial photography by the fact that they were willing to use the photographic medium. The very term painter photographer was made up in reference to Frank Eugene who worked simultaneously with Stieglitz in media for a decade. Eugene attended a German fine arts academy, and painted theatrical portraits of the United States. In 1889 he mounted a solo exhibition of pictorial photographs at the Camera Club of New York, which, pointedly, was reviewed in Camera Notes as painting photography (Norman 23). In conclusion Stieglitz's fight for photography developed into new ideas for future generations. He continued to make his own experiments and to defend the work of others also breaking new ground. The magazines he edited, like the galleries he founded, swiftly became dynamic points of contact between artist and public and a battleground for new ideas.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Montessori Language Rationale Essay

Language, simply put, is a system of symbols with an agreed upon meaning that is shared within a group of individuals. Maria Montessori understood that children have to learn language, that it is not inborn. She also understood the adolescent mind has a long sensitive period for language. Because language is deeply connected to the process of thinking, the child will need to be spoken to and listened to often. Each child learns language at their own rate and pace. There can be different factors, such as a child learning multiple languages at once. Most often, with little effort, the child will be able to learn oral language by being in an environment that fosters conversation. Early on, toddlers will begin to make intentional sounds, â€Å"At one year of age the child says his first intentional word†¦his babbling has a purpose, and this intention is a proof of conscious intelligence†¦He becomes ever more aware that language refers to his surroundings, and his wish to master it consciously becomes also greater†¦.Subconsciously and unaided, he strains himself to learn, and this effort makes his success all the more astonishing.† (The Absorbent Mind, p. 111) Most children by the age of two will have a rapid growth in language comprehension. Towards the end of the second year the child is able to combine two or more words into basic sentences, â€Å"Every child†¦bur sts out with a number of words all perfectly pronounced. And all this occurs at the end of the second year of his life.† (The Absorbent Mind, p. 103) The directress plays the most important role by giving objects labels within the environment. It is essential that all language be given to a child within a context. The child needs to know the names, labels, and the meaning of things in the environment in order for them to have relevancy, â€Å"At about a year and a half, the child discovers another fact, and that is that each thing has its own name.† (The Absorbent Mind, p.113) This allows the child to see and understand the greater picture of things and gives things meaning. Once the greater picture is achieved, it can then be broken down into smaller details. The Montessori language materials isolate elements of language and offer  Ã¢â‚¬Ëœportals’ for the children in the exploration of language. Maria crafted the materials to be presented to the child in the same manner in which they learn oral language, starting with nouns, articles, adverbs, etc. After a new concept is presented to the child, there should always be a return to the original environmental language using storytelling, poetry, storybooks and everyday speech. This allows the child to clearly see how the new concept is applied, with context, in our world. The Montessori preliminary language exercises give the child the vocabulary for objects in the immediate environment. Three part cards with appropriate terminology are a wonderful material to introduce new vocabulary for nouns. Sandpaper letters are a great tool to introduce the child to the sounds of alphabet. Puzzles may also be placed on the shelf, for they indirectly teach the left to right reading style. By the time the absorbent mind of the child has reached the age of six, they will come to understand that the sounds and words have meaning and that these symbols can be used in writing.  The Montessori curriculum helps the child develop writing skills through many materials. Tracing the sandpaper letters, working with the movable alphabet, metal insets, as well as using the sand tray, all help teach letter formation. A silent helper in the Montessori classroom is the practical life area. In the practical life area, you will find many jobs that indirectly teach proper pincer g rip for holding a pencil. Introduction to reading comes through phonetic reading boxes. The reading boxes are cleverly organized, going from simple to the complex. Reading does not follow the same process of writing, which is taking our own thoughts and symbolizing. When we read, it is not our language with which we are working with, it is the author’s language. Reading is the analysis of the language followed by a synthesis. Story telling and socio-dramatic play in the environment can help the child develop an imagination that fosters a higher capability to understand what is being read to them. The Montessori language program is like no other. With a prepared Montessori environment, the child can flourish in orally, in their handwriting, and  lastly in their reading.

Monday, September 16, 2019

What drives you up the wall? †Strikes on Transport

There are many things that drive me up the wall one of the main things is when there are strikes on transport. There are strikes on transport on important days like Boxing Day when people will want to go to shops for the sales, why do they have strikes? The employees think that they don’t get enough wages when there is beyond enough. Why should they get an increase in wages when there is bad service, bad manners, bad facial expressions towards customers and a lot more bad things I could go on about?! Whenever there is a strike on transport it causes chaos for many people’s lives such as works that have to travel by train or students or other people who have to go somewhere important. This is all just caused because worker s want a raise. Why can’t they just appeal without being oblivious and ruining other people’s lives? However, it is not only bad for us but for the London Transport company as they are losing millions of pounds which is not admirable. Even if strikes were the only way, the negative effect will be listened to better. Workers right should be allowed but not effecting innocent people (the society) as they have done nothing wrong. There have been many strikes around the world one of the latest, Greek strikes caused disruption to places like hospitals. Another reason is that when there is a strike, tourists cannot travel freely, this is harmful for the city or countries reputation and no one wants that. Here is an ultimatum would you rather lose your job and have no money or go to work and have money even though it is not up to your satisfaction? This is what you have to bear in mind. You have to be happy with amount of money you get paid as some workers get paid less than ?10. 00 a week. In addition to this why are they striking when they get paid ?15, 000 just for working 35hours this is more than what many workers get paid, this drives me up the wall insanely, There are many individuals who will actually appreciate the amount they got. However we are lucky that some of the transport drives weren’t stupid enough to go on strike and continue their work and if they didn’t they are probably going to lose their job. As well as that thanks to the people that came to work because then the company would millions of pounds which could be used on cleaning the transport as it is unhygienic. Transport for London is so bad compared to the trains in china as in china they have clean, fast transport and good service. What could be better than that! However in London we sit on dirty seats which are not cleaned on a daily basis, we are sitting on hundred germs. Having strikes will cause financial problems for many transport companies such as Transport for London, in the Greek Economy there has been severe damage caused by the strikes. As well as that in July 2010 the Greek Railway has been trying to raise over ?400million of loans from the public management. On the same day in Athens people walked off the job shutting down the tubes. These are things that cause damage economically. However, strikes are only allowed if asked permission if not it is illegal and they will be punished with fines and sentences. If the strikes don’t work the strikers will have to go to this person who will make negotiations of how much they should be paid and they will definitely loose. In addition to this the Transport Industry is too important to the society to be having a wage negotiation, when there are many well being who have places to go and people to see. I would not mind if there was strikes if transport was clean and the service was impeccable but no there is rubbish service and very bad conditions. The strikers get paid a fair wage but just don’t appreciate it; I’ll bet there are many people who will be dying for this job. In addition to this there have been many accidents caused by the employer’s exhaustion which causes accidents, so the person who got hurt can sue leaving the company to lose a lot of money. Another reason in which I wouldn’t mind if there was a strike if the transport was safe and strikes for reasonable concessions and not ask unfair and unsustainable benefits. Another fact is that strikes are just to put pressure on Government to change policies. Whatever is the end result, the strike harms the nation, the community, the community and the management. Some people think that people who work on transport have freedom to express themselves and yes this true but what is the point of all of it when it will just cause chaos and havoc. I don’t understand why people feel that they express their selves causing trouble and trying to prove a point. In my opinion I think that strikes on transport should be banned as it is chaotic and unfair. I think it is unfair as the amount of money employees get in transport is so much already it will just make employees lose their job and will have no money. As well as that many people have to travel by transport to get to work and they are losing money too by not going to work. However there are different ways to get your word through to without having a strike which is disruptive. I don’t understand why whenever there is a strike Boris Johnson tells us† get on your bikes and cycle help save the environment. † For example if I wanted to go to the city and I live in Stanmore I would have to cycle for about 3 hours and how are elderly supposed to cycle anyways they will just run out of breath. However instead of taking the bus to a short distance we should save the environment instead of ruining it and you could either walk or cycle. As well as this how are we supposed to manage when there is a sudden strike without no notice- this has happened a few times. If we didn’t have strikes we could save money to have internet connection it the tube/trains or wifi despite this there is always strikes on the most important day for example The Royal Wedding- this is a time when the Transport Company can earn a lot of money in just under an hour. The most agitating thing about public transport is when you can stereotypical, rowdy teens come on and shout in there disruptive, loud voice like they own their transport or listening to music so loud that you could hear from out on the streets. As well as that when you get on the bus and the driver gives you creepy looks while groaning under their breath waiting for you to get your oyster out or your money. When the bus driver sees you running they just slam the door shut and drive off making you wait like another half an hour for another bus, has this ever happened to you? Don’t you feel annoyed and angry that you want to get a rock and just throw it at the drivers face? To conclude I think that there should only be strikes if necessary not for things that are unnecessary or unbeneficial and there shouldn’t be a strike on important days which is very silly as the underground have an advantage of earning money. In addition to this whenever we get on a train we have never actually got good service; instead of being cranky when they got a raise in their wages which is so unfair and causing financial problems in the company risking their jobs. In my opinion I think strikes are the most stupid, aggravating thing to do for resolving things. Public Transport is agitating, hectic and contaminated; they should be trying to fix it not making it worse.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Egypt Warfare Essay

By and large, ancient Egypt is considered to be one of the most peaceful of ancient civilizations — so peaceful, in fact, that they did not have a proper army until the invasion of the Hyksos during their 15th Dynasty! For the longest time, the extent of their military consisted of foot soldiers whose biggest job might involve settling civil unrest. There were still palace guards and those who watched the borders of the country, not to mention men whose job it was to guard trade ships, but until it was absolutely necessary, that was the mainstay of their army. Prior to the Hyksos invasion, fighting was less prevalent in ancient Egypt ; warfare involved campaigns sent out to unify the country, and other, smaller disputes often required the use of foreign mercenaries. Because of their strong leanings toward religion, Egyptians did not have a drive to leave their own lands to fight foreign armies in case they were unable to give the proper funeral rites to their fallen soldiers. When the Hyksos invaded Lower Egypt, they introduced the country to weapons and protective gear never before seen that close to the Nile . Because of the invaders, walls in the tombs of dead nobles and kings were covered in paintings of ancient Egyptian war chariots being driven with an archer who steered the horses with the reins tied around his waist. Other weapons used by the ancient Egyptian army included clubs and maces, as well as axes, knives, and swords; they were also handy with projectile weapons such as spears, bows and arrows, and javelins. Shields were the main bit of defensive equipment, with the occasional use of limited body armor. The Egyptians also used siege weaponry when necessary, such as towers and battering rams. During the time of Amenhotep III and beyond, a good portion of the enlisted men were prisoners of war. Recruits from Nubia and other neighboring areas were also brought in, and eventually a good percentage of Egyptian men were required to join the military, especially towards the time of continuous war due to invaders from not only surrounding areas but from Greece and Rome, as well. As the ancient Egyptians were a very religious people, they had many gods and goddess to pray to. This included the Egyptian god of war, Onuris, who is in many ways similar to Ares, the Greek god of war. His Egyptian name, Anhur, means â€Å"he who leads back the distant one. † He is considered to be the son of Ra, the sun god, and is believed to hunt down and kill the enemies of his father. Ancient Egypt and its people went from being very religious and peaceful to needing to keep their lands free of foreign hands. It worked well for them for a while, at least, though with the invasion of Alexander the Great and his army, Egypt never quite regained what it had been before.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Abortion Rights

There have been many cases in Canada’s legal system some more complicated and time consuming than others. It is a never ending process that has occurred throughout history as society’s beliefs continued to change and various new issues arose. Most people at the time would believe that majority of the cases in court would be to apprehend criminals in the eyes of the law with no other benefit to society. Unfortunately this perception was nothing but an illusion that had been imprinted in the minds of society. In fact if people had paid more attention to details as well as researched various the issues thoroughly, they would have discovered just how much each and every case had an effect on the world around them. Of these cases there has been a few which stood out for having a major impact on society whether or not people were aware of it. But the one that stood out the most among them was Abortion rights R. V. Mergenthaler, {1988} 1 S. C. R. 30. The case Abortion rights R. V. Mergenthaler, {1988} 1 S. C. R. 30 has changed Canadian society for the better due to the major impact it had on one of the most controversial issues. Firstly the major reason to why this case had changed society for the better is because of the fact that it had protected the lives of those who reside in it. In an In-depth explanation of this is that at the time women faced a lot of hate and criticism from society if they were to seek abortion. This also led them to develop various emotional problems which could have later turned into more serious health problems such as depression. It did not end here another health problem that women had faced at this time was that they had they experienced â€Å"excessive physiological pressure† (Klassen, Jeff and Clydesdale, Jacqui. Abortion: An Overview: Canadian Points of View Reference Centre, 2009) in the process of trying to obtain an approval for an abortion from a therapeutic abortion committee in an accredited hospital because they would worry if their application would get rejected or not. Another common occurrence was that the time it took in order to get an approval for abortion increased the risks of problems occurring when doctors performed the medical procedure. Also a cold reality was that some women had died because their bodies were unfit to give birth and the doctors refused to perform the abortion rocedure unless they were approved by the committee which caused them to die a death that could have otherwise been prevented. This situation is portrayed in the newspaper article ‘Change your abortion law to save lives' grieving father tells Irish PM’ (Chamberlain, Gethin. ‘Change your abortion law to save lives' grieving: thegurdian, Saturday 17 November 2012). where it tells the story of a girl whose life was at risk because her body could not handle giving birth and she was refused abortion due to Irelands abortion laws which led her to die. Fortunately these events have now been prevented and the lives of the women in the future have been saved due to this case making it a case that had truly changed society. Secondly it had stopped the injustice and discrimination for the women who sought an abortion in Canada had faced. The reason for this is because it is a biased decision that women had to get an approval at an accredited hospital in order to get an abortion. There simply was no need for this to occur as many of them had developed health problems due to delays or rejections by the committee. People also should not have had the right to decide whether or not someone should get an abortion or not it is the parent of the unborn child’s decision. Also in what these laws were cruel and inhumane as they had forced women who were no able to obtain an approval to bare an unwanted child and go through the various stages of pregnancy. This can be the same as if girl were raped by someone in order to force her to bear a child except in this case it is the law that is the one that forced the girl to bear a child. There was also the problem with the fact that Criminal code restricted abortion causing it to infringe the rights of women as stated in one of sub sections of section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights called Security of the person. In this section it states that because the criminal code restricted abortions and affected their health it was unconstitutional. Therefore this case has saved women from the discrimination and injustice they were faced with from society and the law which changed how they would be treated in the future. Lastly it saved the lives of the future that would otherwise have been neglected or wasted. Anyone would have been able to decipher this without a second thought and it would have caused them to realize what would have happened to the unwanted child that the mother wanted aborted if it were born into this world. Many would have tried to believe that everything would have been fine and go on with their lives. But unfortunately it would have been hard to believe that the child would have been treated the same by its mother like another mother who actually wanted a child would treat it. The child would have actually been mistreated and neglected as if it were a burden because the mother did not want it in the first place. These events would have developed emotion problems in the child earlier on in their childhood which would have affected them the rest of their lives and would not have allowed them to live a normal happy life. This is due to society’s beliefs at the time that had been blinded by the ignorance and made them forget that â€Å"No one wants to see unwanted children brought into the world† (Lerman, Evelyn. Nobody Likes Abortion: Canadian Points of View Reference Centre, 2000). So they basically fought for no abortion laws while not foreseeing what would have happened to children who were born from mothers who wanted abortions. Thankfully this case had made sure that abortion laws were changed so that the lives which would have been neglected or wasted were not put in this world so they could have been happier. In conclusion it can be determined that this case truly did change Canadian society. As it helped save the lives of the women by making sure the abortion laws were changed as well as prevented the women of the future from experiencing the problems that they had to face in order to get an abortion. The injustice and discrimination of the women in was also nullified giving women more rights and a better place in society. It also helped save the lives of the future that would have otherwise been neglected or wasted. In the end this case is truly outstanding and deserves a place in Canadian history for the great accomplishments that it has brought to Canadian society.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Reflection paper Term Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Reflection - Term Paper Example Among the services offered is diagnosis of various complications. We also carry out therapy after diagnosis of the diseases; additionally the hospital has a pharmaceutical department that offers all types of medications as prescribed by medical professionals. The hospital is also, of late, establishing a research center. The research center will focus on the trending medical complications such as cancer, sexually transmitted diseases and blood sugar level and pressure complications (Armstrong, 2014). The hospital is seeking to partner with other big hospitals to provide a state of art services to children medical complications. Additionally, through the agencies that provide vaccination, the facility is seeking to partner with them so that it can also take part in the vaccination process. The administrators of the hospital usually partner with medical personnel to boost the services offered to the patients and also help in motivating the professionals for better service delivery. Through the partnership and good relationship, the facility has significantly reduced the cost of health services. The human resource department of the facility has set the hospitals goals, and they measure the progress of the hospital by looking at the progress towards the achievement of the goals. The Recruiter ensures that people who are recruited to work in the facility are well qualified and possess the necessary skills. Consequently, the hospital boasts of having the most qualified medical profess ionals in the city. The entire staff is also highly disciplined and upholds respect and transparency of the highest level. Also, the hospital has partnered with other Agencies to provide community-based service delivery. The services offered are a give back to the society, and it includes educating the community on methods to promote health safety and free medical services to the community. The need of the patients facilitates the hospital mission. Working towards facilitating good

Thursday, September 12, 2019

All together Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

All together - Essay Example A common definition of desire is simply an individual wish. In this world, everybody has a wish but one common desire for everybody is success. A part from success I would also wish to have more money so that I can meet all of my expenses. In addition, I also desire to have peace of mind, essence of well-being, love, fun, fulfillments, and love. The desire is my driving force, that is to say, it is my motivation, and therefore, it keeps my dreams a live as I strive to realize my goals and aspirations. Up to this point, the desire is like my touchstone that provides the extra energy needed to realize my potential. I believe that if I write down and spell aloud what I want to achieve then I will be able to realize it. By doing this, I tend to have a conviction that I am precisely sending my intentions to the universe. It is widely believed that by being precise and clear in your intention, the universe is most likely to reward you with high power that is helpful in fulfilling your dreams. In my case, I have a diary where I do write down my intentions and achievements on daily basis as a way of success monitoring. As one of my success factor skills, I do pledge that I will always do everything possible within my capabilities to realize my personal objectives so that I can have a smooth and a fulfilling life. To me, this is what commitment is all about. In most cases, I do not let my ego come between I and my ambitions, I do not find it very difficult to swallow my pride and apologize to those I have wronged. As I succeed, I do not want to accumulate enemies but friends with mutual respect. Furthermore, this success factor skill is vital as it assist in easing an individual mind from the personal life burden (Gray, 1999). There is no one in the world that is fully independent, which is evident from the common saying ‘no one

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Management Styles of Ursula Burns Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Management Styles of Ursula Burns - Essay Example The world continues to grow and flourish because of management and its leaders. This report will involve a study of management and its history in brief; further, an attempt will be made to understand management in contemporary times using an example of a current thriving business. A brief study on Xerox Corporation and its evolution under the able leadership of its CEO Ursula Burns will help in understanding the challenges in modern businesses. In this process, management qualities of Ms Burns that helped Xerox will be highlighted. 2. Management: Management may be defined as the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz, H & Koontz, H.W, p.5). These individuals and groups accomplish their aims through a systematic approach that forms the main functions of management, such as planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling (p.6). Managers own the responsibility of performin g and/or supervising these functions, and hence need specific skills and knowledge related to these functions. 2.1 History of management: The concept of management has existed since centuries back, but it has received much attention only during last century. One important historical development related to the study of management can be traced back to the writings of Walter Puckey’s writings named ‘What is This Management?†(Witzel, p.4). Studies related to this concept were begun at the Harvard Business School by the then dean, Edwin Gay, during 1908 (p.5). The main areas of focus in management study at that time included the terms manager, factor, administrator and executive, with each term having specific meaning based on the functions performed by these individuals. However, the concept of managers is the most cited one in management texts, owing to their functions (pls see appendix 1). 2.2 Current management concerns and challenges: Trends in management have be en constantly changing because of technological advancements, changes in attitudes of customers and clients, changes in employee expectations, changes in market, globalization etc. Hence, the most prominent challenge in management field relates to ‘change.’ Managers are under constant pressure from superiors and external entities to bring about improvement in their performance outcomes in every manner. This subsequently challenges skills and knowledge. In most of the cases, managers also own leadership responsibilities besides managerial functions, which necessitate constant interaction, coaching, guidance, supervision and motivation of their team members. Constantly changing circumstances put greater pressure on managers to meet their employees’ expectations in terms of skill upgradation, mentoring, motivation, conflict resolution, etc. Managers should also deliver constant improvement in order to sustain their organization’s good performance, or have to compete against better performance from rivals in the field in order to sustain the organization’s position in the market. 3. Who is Ursula Burns? Ursula Burns, the CEO and Chairman of Xerox Corp, USA, is one of the most powerful women in the world as per Fortune magazine’s list. Her success at Xerox stands as an example of efficient and effective management overcoming all hardships and leading the company to success. A brief study on Burns life and career would help in understanding the underlying reasons for her achievement. 3.1

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

The diy orchestra of the future Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

The diy orchestra of the future - Coursework Example The video begins by giving a demo of the code of the Chuck. Wang explains how to make the sign wave oscillator called ‘ge’. He chooses to take the frequency of 440Hz at a time intervals of 2 seconds. He opts to double the frequency thereby changing the tone of the music. He decides to continue with changing the frequencies until his computer integrates. At this point, he reaches at a point known as economical computer music, and he suggest that it is like the sounds made when the main frames are really thinking hard. Additionally, he talks about instruments being created by computer software. He gives an example with a hemisphere that has six holes on it, which is used to produce the laptop orchestra. He uses twilight to prototype instruments by pulling a sound out of the ground, and it really worked leaving the class amazed with laughter echoing the hall. He produces many instruments in the laptop orchestra. He also explains how the compliment follows the melody demonstrating with a phone like

Monday, September 9, 2019

Workers and the Economy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

Workers and the Economy - Essay Example Therefore, capital is a very critical aspect of socioeconomic resource because it influences the production, transformation of natural resources, consumption and plays a significant role in the creation of the by-products thus an important aspect of pollution. There are two major types of capital variable and constant capital. On the other hand, investment of these capitals creates or reduces the value of production, and this is the basis of the term surplus value. The assignment aims to discuss constant capital, variable capital, and surplus-value with an illustration of how they lead to capital accumulation. Marx defined constant capital as the materials and materials that production of a certain commodity requires (Evans, 2013). In this case, constant capital is the capital proportion that investors channel on the materials as well as the purchased components. On the other hand, the value forms part cost of selling the product thus constant capital remains the same until a product is sold to the market. Constant capital includes the cost of using materials, machinery, and tools since they are all inclusive of the production process. For instance, if the production process involves using a million dollar worth of machinery in producing 10,000 cars then each car will have $100 of the machinery. However, constant capital is measurable when a commodity or a product has now worn out or depreciated. Therefore, constant capital sums up both unit and fixed costs implying that no matter how amount of materials, machines, and components are brought into the production and sold, they do not add a ny new value to the product. The implication is that whether the factors of productions undergo prolonged storage in the warehouse, or used in the production, there is no difference in the amount of capital. Marx concluded that whatever value the materials add when capitalists buy them for production purposes, they assume the same value even

Business and Economic Forecasting Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Business and Economic Forecasting - Essay Example The appropriate model is estimated and a one to four step forecasting is undertaken to determine the appropriateness of the model. We consider the price index of the Rio Tinto, the 5 day weekly stock price for the period 31st December 1999 to 31st December 2007 is used and the following chart summarizes the price index for the period. From the above table it is evident that for the period 2000 to 2004 the price remained relatively stable deviating by small margins, however for the period 2005 to 2007 there was an increase in prices by larger margins. The following is an analysis of the Rio Tinto returns. According to Woodridge (2006) dynamic heteroskedasticity can appear in regressions with no dynamic, in a regression if the Gauss Markov assumption holds then the estimators are BLUE (best linear unbiased estimator). However even when the homoskedasticity assumption that the error terms variance is constant across observations holds there could be still other forms of heteroskedasticity that may arise, heteroskedasticity can be tested using the white test or the Breusch pagan test. The following chart shows a case of homoskedasticity and heteroskedasticity: From the above diagrams assuming that the 45 degree line is the fitted regression model, then the first diagram shows a case where as x increases the mean of y increases but the variance of y around its mean remains constant over time, for the second diagram a case where as x increases the mean of y increases and the variance of y around its mean does not remain constant and this shows heteroskedasticity. There are a number of consequences of heteroskedasticity and they include the fact that: Estimators are still linear functions of the independent variable The estimators are not biased Estimators no longer have minimum variance therefore are not efficient The estimated variance of the estimators is biased because the formula to estimate them could over state or under state the true variance The hypothesis test of the significance is unreliable given that the estimated variance is biased. As a result Engel (1982) suggested the ARCH model that would consider a conditional error term variance that takes into consideration past error terms and this was the ARCH model. The ARCH and GARSH model are appropriate models that can be used in modeling financial data that exhibit volatility clustering, volatility clustering refers to a trend that shows that small increases or declines are followed by small increases or declines and that large increases or declines are followed by large increases or declines. From our price data chart it is evident that for the period 2000 to 2004 small increases and declines are followed by small increases or declines, however for the period 2005 and 2007 large increases are followed by large increases. This means that the ARCH and GARSH model are appropriate in estimating an appropriate model. The following chart summarizes the returns mean, kurtosis and