Friday, May 31, 2019

Witchcraft and the Inquisition of the Catholic Church Essay -- Essays

Witchcraft and the Inquisition of the Catholic ChurchWitchcraft. The word in itself evokes a certain kind of eeriness. In aside centuries, people who were accused of being witches were thought of to be the worst kinds of people there are. There were several kinds of witches and several ways in which they operated. Whatever the reason, the Catholic Church saw witches, or those accused of being witches, as sinful. Partly to stop this kind of sin and other forms, the Inquisition of the Catholic Church was implemented. It is authorized to know what the factors leading up to the Inquisition included to fully understand its implementation. Once the history is reviewed it is easy to see how the Faith of the Church and the reason rump its thinking were hand-in-hand at the time, and also the way in which they seemingly conflict today. There are many factors leading up to the establishment of the Inquisition by the Catholic Church. One of the main factors is the beginning of the Middle Age s in Europe. A symbol of these emerging ages is Pope Gerbert of the year 1000. Although he was a Pope, he was erudite in algebra, and because of his knowledge he was considered somewhat of a wizard. He once wrote to a friend in Italy asking for secular books written in Latin. He instructs the friend to make sure the books are procured quietly. (Nickerson 12) . Nickerson feels that this makes Gerbert a symbol of his times because it is out of similar knowledge that the Medieval times arise. Around the same time, the Normans were subjugation England, the Church begins to have a common purpose, and the First Crusade begins. Although the Church was secure in its universality, two groups, the Albigensians and Waldensians emerged, each with very di... ...ured endlessly. Finally, all people were allowed to recollect what they wanted to believe. Faith and reason were in harmony. BibliographyBooks James B. Given, Inquisition and Medieval Society Power, Discipline, and Resistance i n Languedoc. (Ithaca Cornell University Press, 1997). Hoffman Nickerson, The Inquisition A Political and Military engage of its Establishment. (Port Washington, NY. Kennkiat Press, Inc., 1968). Mary Elizabeth Perry, and Anne J. Cruz, Cultural Encounters The Impact of the Inquisition in Spain and the NewWorld. (Berkeley, CA. University of California Press, 1991). Albert C. Shannon, O.S.A., The Medieval Inquisition. (Collegeville, Minnesota Liturgical Press, 1991). Internet Sources Hilgers, Joseph. Index of Prohibited Books. The Catholic Encyclopedia.URL

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Arapesh and Embedded vs. Disembedded economy :: Essays Papers

Arapesh and Embedded vs. Disembedded economyPolanyi says, regarding the economy, the economic embedded in noneconomic institutions. An embedded economy is an economy in which economic activities occur such(prenominal) as, production and distribution however other activities, which are not economic also occur. Activities such as forming friendships or helping other people may be happening, but it might just seem like the normal economic process because it is an embedded economy.When Polanyi says that the economy is embedded in noneconomic institutions he convey that while economic exertion is occurring, it is occurring for noneconomic reasons. The economic activity may be occurring in order to continue a friendship or help someone. Activities in an embedded economy often seem like they are not economic activities. They seem like this because usually the reason the economic activity is occurring is for noneconomic reasons. For example, if dickens bakers both produce whea t bread, but do not eat their own, instead they exchange bread, because they want to have a reason to be friends. This stead does not seem like economic activity, it seems like two people sharing their food. It actually is economic activity, because the two bakers are both producing and distributing their bread. So, even though the bakers are only exchanging the bread because they want to maintain their friendship, what they are doing is an economic activity that would happen in an embedded economy.Today most economic activity is considered to be part of a disembedded economy. In a disembedded economy, economic activity occurs only for economic reasons, so it is the opposite of an embedded economy. Economic activity is only independent from such institutions as family or friendship. An example, of activity in a disembedded economy is a person going to a grocery store and get bread. There is no other institution involved in the economic process of production and distribution of t he bread which is why this would occur in a disembedded economy. The producer of the bread is making the bread so that he can sell it and get money for it, the consumer is buying the bread so it will endure to him. Economic activities of production and distribution are perceived by the Arapesh to just be part of their society. Everything that the Arapesh use and take care of daily belongs to someone else, whether it is their trees or pigs. The Arapesh believe that they must share what they own with the other Arapesh to help them survive.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Whites Voss :: Religion Australia Suffering Essays

Whites Voss Whites mind of fate is one in which everyone is doomed to suffer and greatness is measured by the individuals capacity to do so (Brady 1978). This is articulated by Clark who believes that in the harshness of the Australian setting the only glory men know on universe is how they respond to defeat and failure (quoted by Bliss 3). The quest in Voss cannot be read as one that looks forward in expectation of appargonnt results. The usual criteria involved in determining failure must be discarded here. The failures must be seen as inherent, inextricable components of the ongoing process of enough rather than being, articulated in Voss as the mystery of life not solved by success, which is an end in itself, but in failure, in stark(a) struggle, in becoming (269). White has partly used the metaphor of a geographical exploration because the desert explorer must inevitably suffer physically and this allows insight into suffering on the spiritual realm. This links Voss to the wilderness experiences of Moses, Jesus, St Antony and many other desert ascetics. White shows that suffering through losing self is only the branch step of a process of finding a truer sense of self, in acquiring an understanding of the human condition and, ultimately, in coming closer to discovering the presage. The depression of failure facilitating humility will be used in this essay to establish whether the characters in Voss are fortunate in their failures and to consider how White has offer to this fortunate failure in the actual process of writing. Different aspects of failure will be examined, but ultimately they are all part of the necessary failure entailed in the religious quest. Bliss explains this failure as being vital in the recognition that the Infinite, by definition, must be infinitely desire (205). Her superficial paradox is similar to many of the deliberately paradoxical elements of Whites work which all form part of the Christian paradox of recovering a tr uer sense of self through self-sacrifice. It is not unreasonable to see this as the controlling idea behind the fortunate failures as Whites self-stated intention was to write a unused concerning the relationship between the blundering human being and God(White quoted in van den Driesen 77). The interest lies in how this blundering is explored as a necessary part of the Divine quest. Le Mesuriers failure could be attributed to his taking his own life, but this is too literal a view to take in a novel where characters are invested with expanding consciousness rather than diminished awareness.

Affirmative Action :: essays research papers

In its tumultuous, nearly 40-year history, affirmative action has been both praised and pilloried as an answer to racial inequality. The polity was introduced in 1965 by President Johnson as a method of redressing discrimination that had persisted in spite of civil rights laws and constitutional guarantees. "This is the next and more than profound layer of the battle for civil rights," Johnson asserted. "We seek not just equality as a right and a theory, but equality as a circumstance and as a result."Focusing in finicky on education and jobs, affirmative action policies required that active measures be taken to ensure that blacks and former(a) minorities enjoyed the same opportunities for promotions, salary increases, career advancement, school admissions, scholarships, and financial aid that had been the nearly exclusive province of whites. From the let onset, affirmative action was envisioned as a improvised remedy that would end once there was a "level playing field" for all Americans.By the late 70s, however, flaws in the policy began to show up amid its good intentions. Reverse discrimination became an issue, epitomized by the famous Bakke case in 1978. Allan Bakke, a white male, had been rejected two years in a course of instruction by a medical school that had accepted less qualified minority applicantsthe school had a separate admissions policy for minorities and reserved 16 out of 100 places for minority students. The Supreme Court outlawed inflexible quota systems in affirmative action programs, which in this case had unfairly discriminated against a white applicant. In the same ruling, however, the Court upheld the legality of affirmative action per se.Fueled by "angry white men," a backlash against affirmative action began to mount. To conservatives, the system was a zero-sum game that opened the door for jobs, promotions, or education to minorities while it shut the door on whites. In a country that prized t he values of self-reliance and draw oneself up by ones bootstraps, conservatives resented the idea that some unqualified minorities were getting a free ride on the American system. "Preferential treatment" and "quotas" became expressions of contempt. Even more contentious was the accusation that some minorities enjoyed playing the role of professional victim. Why could some minorities who had also experienced terrible adversity and racismJews and Asians, in particularmanage to make the American way work for them without government handouts?Liberals countered that "the land of opportunity" was a very different place for the European immigrants who landed on its shores than it was for those who arrived in the chains of slavery.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The Nature of Adolescence, by John C. Coleman and Leo B. Hendry Essay

There have been many scientists and philosophers that have put forth information about the stages that humans go through in life. peerless of these representations is put forth by Erikson, in the book The Nature of Adolescence, by John C. Coleman and Leo B. Hendry. This theory has four steps 1. The problem of intimacy, 2. A spreading of time perspective, or the problems of focusing on the future, 3. Diffusion of industry or the difficulty of focusing on studies, and finally 4. Negative identity or the disaffected stage. These stages are not purely involved in the teenage years of a persons life, as they tramp go through and perchance stay at these stages throughout their entire life. Rebecca Fraser-Thill defines it as, Identity diffusion is unmatched step in the process of finding a sense of self. It refers to a effect when an individual does not have an established identity, nor is actively searching for one. In other words, its a time when a persons identity remains unresolv ed, yet there is no identity crisis (Thill). In the novel A Portrait of the Artist as a modern Man by James Joyce, each of these stages can be seen as the novel progresses. An analysis of the stages of development as stated by Erikson, in A Portrait of the Artist as a vernal Man and in my own life is needed. Intimacy problems can be seen in the early stages of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man when Stephen, the protagonist of the novel, has multiple sexual escapades with prostitutes. James Joyce tells of this, saying, It was too much for him. He closed his eyes, surrendering himself to her, body and mind, conscious of nothing in the world just now the dark pressure of her softly parting lips.(Joyce, Chapter 2, Section 5). This shows his reluctance to commit to a... the world. Many people either do not progress, getting stuck on one level or another, or they regress back to stages that they have already surpassed. There are definitely problems in everybodys life but the scoop thing to do is learn from them. These stages are not set in stone and there is no way to fully know what happens in a persons mind. Works CitedAbout. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. .Coleman, John C., and Leo B. Hendry. The Nature of Adolescence. N.p. Metheun and Co., 1980. Print.Erikson, Erik H. Identity Youth and Crisis. N.p. W.W. Norton and Company, 1968. Print.Melges, Frederick T. Identity and Temporal Perspective. Cognitive Models of Psychological Time. Ed. Richard A. Block. N.p. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990. 255-67. Print. SimplyPsychology. N.p., n.d.

The Nature of Adolescence, by John C. Coleman and Leo B. Hendry Essay

There have been many scientists and philosophers that have put forth information about the stages that reality go through in life. One of these representations is put forth by Erikson, in the book The Nature of Adolescence, by John C. Coleman and Leo B. Hendry. This theory has quatern steps 1. The problem of intimacy, 2. A diffusion of time perspective, or the problems of focusing on the future, 3. Diffusion of industry or the difficulty of focusing on studies, and eventually 4. Negative identity or the rebellious stage. These stages are not purely involved in the teenage years of a persons life, as they can go through and possibly stay at these stages throughout their entire life. Rebecca Fraser-Thill defines it as, Identity diffusion is one step in the process of purpose a sense of self. It refers to a period when an individual does not have an established identity, nor is actively searching for one. In other words, its a time when a persons identity remains unresolved, yet the re is no identity crisis (Thill). In the novel A enactment of the Artist as a Young humanity by James Joyce, each of these stages can be seen as the novel progresses. An analysis of the stages of development as stated by Erikson, in A delineation of the Artist as a Young Man and in my own life is needed. Intimacy problems can be seen in the early stages of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man when Stephen, the protagonist of the novel, has multiple sexual escapades with prostitutes. James Joyce tells of this, saying, It was too much for him. He closed his eyes, surrendering himself to her, body and mind, advised of nothing in the world but the dark pressure of her softly parting lips.(Joyce, Chapter 2, Section 5). This shows his reluctance to commit to a... the world. Many people either do not progress, getting stuck on one level or another, or they regress back to stages that they have already surpassed. There are definitely problems in everybodys life but the best th ing to do is learn from them. These stages are not set in stone and there is no sort to fully know what happens in a persons mind. Works CitedAbout. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 May 2014. .Coleman, John C., and Leo B. Hendry. The Nature of Adolescence. N.p. Metheun and Co., 1980. Print.Erikson, Erik H. Identity Youth and Crisis. N.p. W.W. Norton and Company, 1968. Print.Melges, Frederick T. Identity and Temporal Perspective. cognitive Models of Psychological Time. Ed. Richard A. Block. N.p. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1990. 255-67. Print. SimplyPsychology. N.p., n.d.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Hill Country snack food Co. Case Essay

Hill plains operating(a) strategy and its impact on personal line of credit jeopardize & financial strategy The operating strategy is to produce high quality products through efficient, low-cost and aggressive operation as well as singular management. In detail, the company provides several kinds of snacks to satisfy different types customers. The company expands its presence into sporting events, movie theaters and other leisure events to coax customers. An efficient and low-cost operation is achieved by strong tick of budgets and costs. Customers ar satisfied by companies quick react to their requirements or preferences and reinvent and expand its products, demo the efficient management for the customer requirement.Also, all decisions are made in order to build shareholders appraise, indicating singular management. For the business risk, the snack foods industry was very competitive, cladding off against competitors like PepsiCo and Snyders-Lance very day. In this high riv alry industry, company could not succeed by price affix. And unfavourable cost due to two internal and external factors is not easy to control. In order to control the business risk, the company is actively bringd in the budget approval process, and the operating strategy has very important cleave to keep the costs under control. For the financial risk, the more debt financed the higher financial risk it is. The companys risk avoidance strategy is manifested in its financing decision. The company is managed in preference for beauteousness finance and against debt finance, investments are funded internally.The optimal jacket crown building for Hill CountryThe optimal capital structure is the capital structure at which the market value is maximised and the cost of capital is minimised. There are 3 alternative capital structures from pro forma 2011 financial information. If Hill take 60% debt to capital ratio, the company repurchases the about of the shares comparing with 20% a nd 40% debt to capital ratio structure, the debt would be B rated with highest interest rate of 7.7%, reflecting the higher risk. The net income would drop to $76M, however, the tax would reduce by around $12M, but the interest expense increases to $33.5M, there is big breakage between them. In terms of the 20% debt to capital ratio one, the debt israted at AAA with 2.85% interest rate, the tax and interest both decreases and increases slightly, the EPS and dividend per share in 20% and 60% are less than which in 40% scenario.Regarding to the 40% debt to capital structure, the debt is rated at BBB with 4.4% interest rate. Also, the interest coverage ratio is strong(11.8). The very important part is that even the net income reduces by 8.5%, the EPS and dividend per share, are both the highest compared with 20% and 60% scenarios, thus adding value to the shareholders. In addition, it allows the firm not to be over leveraged, which is in favor of the firm that it does not want to have too much debts. The financial risk is the highest in the 60% scenario since the shareholders have the highest financial leverage(facing bankruptcy). According to the calculation(appendix), the highest value of the firm is $2482M under 40% debt scenario compared with 20% and 60% debt scenarios, thus maximizing the firm value. Therefore 40% debt to capital structure is recommended.Benefits of debt financingDebt financing allows control of business. Owner hatful made decision and does not need consider shareholders or investors. * Debt is tax-deductible. This means that it shields part of business income from taxes and set outs the tax liability. * The lender do not share the profits. Business only need to make re buckle underment. * Debt is less expensive than equity due to its contractual nature and priority claim How large the benefits are depending on the magnitude of the tax benefit numbers, the benefits that reallocated to investors and whether the costs of debt that are less than the benefits from debts.Changes the capital structure?It is recommended that Hill Country to change the capital structure. The capital structure is too conservative, having negative impact on financial performance measures. Hill Country has excessive liquidity, and the interest rate is quite low, it is good opportunity to involve debts. The impacts of the change would be the increase in debt and decrease in equity. The company can get advantage of debts as mentioned before, it is aggressive growth strategy. And the financial ratios much(prenominal) as ROE, ROA, EPS, dividend per share as well as the value of firm would improve. Also, the repurchase of the shares will result in the increase in the share price.However, most lendersprovide severe penalties for late or missed payments, which may include charging late fees, taking possession of collateral, or calling the loan due early. bankruptcy to make payments on a loan, even temporarily, can adversely affect a small businesss credit rating and its ability to encounter future financing. Debt financing is also borrowing against future earnings. This means that instead of using all future profits to grow the business or to pay owners, the firm has to allocate a portion to debt payments. Also, debt can limit future cash flow and growth, decreasing in equity could lead to higher debt-to-equity ratio.Alternatives to increase debt/decrease equityInstead of issuing debt, the firm can borrow debt from banks to increase debt. In order to reduce equity, another method is to rewards its investors by distributing a portion of its profits in the form of cash dividends. Since the cumulative earnings of a company are reported within the balance sheet equity account retained earnings, cash dividends are shown on the companys financial statements as a direct reduction of the account. In addition, Increase expenses can bring the same effect. Depreciation is an operating expense that allows a business to allocate or spread the costs of its assets over the length of their usageful life. The use of an accelerated depreciation method results in a higher depreciation expense during the assets earlier years of service, resulting in a lower net income and equity balance during this time.Conclusion and RecommendationDue to the strong cash balance and high liquidity of the firm, it is recommended that Hill Country to take 40% debt to capital finance with respect to the several benefits with the debt financing to increase the firm value. Also, the firm can consider the alternative ways to change the capital structure. additionNOPAT=EBIT(1-tax)tax rate=35.5%Hamada equation Beta L=Beta U1+(1-T)(D/E)Risk free rate(Rf)=1.8%Market interest rate(Rm)=3.8%cost of equity=Rf+ Beta L*(Rm-Rf)

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Arthur Miller’s Death of A Salesman Controversial Tragedy Essay

Tragedy was a very controversial issue in literature until recent years. Recent figures in literature construct set a clear definition for tragedy. Author moth miller is one of these figures. Plays and novels gull distinguished the definition of tragedy. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary tragedy is a overserious piece of literature typically describing a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force and having a sorrowful or disastrous coda that excites pity or terror. Millers explains that a sad cuneus does not al carriages have to be a monarch or a man of a higher status. A tragical hero can be a unwashed person. A tragedy does not always have to end pessimistically it could have an optimistic ending. The profligacy Death of a Salesman, by Arthur Miller, is a tragedy because its hero, Willy Loman, is a tragic figure that faces a superior source, being the American dream and the struggle for succeeder. Loman also excites pity in the reader because of his defeat and his inability to become a achiever or teach his children how to crystalise their passs successful.Miller defines a flaw as an inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what one conceives to be a challenge to ones dignity Loman fulfills many of the requirements of being a tragic hero. Willy is not flawless in his actions, which by Millers standards make him a tragic hero. It is not wrong for Willy to have flaws and it does not make him a weaker man but a tragic figure. Miller designed the play so that Willy could be a tragic hero and for this he needs to have a flaw. Willys flaw is that he is unable to see things in a more realistic perspective. Charley says something in the play that sums up Willys whole lifespan. He asks him, When the hell atomic number 18 you going to grow up? Willys spends his entire life in an illusion. He sees himself as a great man that is popular and successful. Willy exhibits many childlike qualities. Many of these qualities ha ve an impact on his family. His two sons jab and Happy pick up this behavior from their father. He is idealistic, stubborn, and he has a false sense of his importance in the world.The extreme to which he followed the dream brought him to disillusionment and a loose sense of reality. Willy created a reality for himself where he knocked em cold in Providence, and slaughtered em in Boston.(p.33)Five hundred gross in Providence becomes roughly two hundred gross on the whole trip. The ultimate result of his disillusionment is his suicide. It is ironic that he dies for his ideals although they are misconstrued. Another of Willys flaws is his disloyalty to Linda. Willy is unable to hold strong against temptations such as the women he slept with in Boston. Biffs faith in his father is bemused after he encounters the situation. This may have been the cause for Biffs ill in life.Another of Millers guidelines for a tragic hero is that a common man can be a tragic hero. Willy sums up to man y of the characteristics shown in Arthur Millers article, Tragedy and the Common Man. Willy is the common man Miller speaks of in the article. Willy awakes each day to face the hard struggle of do. Although Willy is not very successful as a businessman he still goes to work everyday because he must support his family. Willy propd a great deal of importance on the success of Biff. Willy believed that the best way to achieve success was the fast way. Willys dreams for his children to become successful shows his role as a common man. Willy went to extremes to try and reach his goal of Biff decent successful.Biff is the most important thing in Willys life because he is Willys last shot at success. If Biff doesnt urgency to be successful and doesnt love him, then Willy would be more satisfied in killing himself in order to try and show Biff that he really is a success. If Biff does love him and wants to become a success then Willy is satisfied in killing himself in order to outflow Biff a better shot at success with his life insurance money. Willys actions and his desire for Biff to become a success and live happily make him a common man.Miller says a tragedy usually deals with a greater power that is taking the freedoms of a lesser power. The lesser power deals with this and fights back against the greater power, while putting something of importance on the line, making him/her a tragic hero. Willy is unable to become a success because he is not able to reach the American dream and work for this successfulness. Although he fights for this successfulness, he fails. Willy has pinched his life on trying to become a success. Willy puts his final examination stride toward success is in Biff. Willy has spent his life raising Biff andtrying to teach him how to become successful. The problem is that Willy doesnt know how to reach success and he teaches Biff that success is fast and easy when its not. Willy always believes he can achieve that kind of success.He neve r lets go of his wasted life. He dreams of being the man who does all of his business out of his house and dying a rich and successful man. Furthermore, Willy also dreams of moving to Alaska where he could work with his hands and be a real man. Biff and Happy follow in their fathers footsteps in their lofty dreams and unrealistic goals. Biff wastes his life being a thief and a loner furthermore, Biff, along with happy try to conjure up a crazy idea of putting on a sporting goods exhibition. Biff really knows that Willy has never been successful and he looks down upon Willy for teaching him the wrong ideal. Biff does realize that Willy has wasted his life in order to make Biffs better. Miss Forsythe, youve just seen a price walk by. A fine, troubled prince. A hardworking, unappreciated prince. A pal, you recognise? A good companion. Always for his boys. (p. 114)Another idea that supports the fact that Death of a Salesman is a tragedy is that there is a possibility of victory. Miller speaks or so the things that make a piece of literature a tragedy is his article Tragedy and the Common Man. Miller says that for a piece to be truly tragic an author can not hesitate to leave anything out and must put in all the information they have to secure their rightful place in their world. Although it does not happen in this play and Willy is unable to overcome the greater force, he is able to make an impact on it.Willys failure sets an example that Biff understands. Willy could have still been successful if he was able to see the flaws in his ways and teach Biff the right way to be a success, which is in hard work. If Willy had not killed himself and taught Biff that working hard at anything would make his successful then Biff may have reached success for himself and make Willy a successful father as well. The reader must look at Willys suicide through Willys eyes. He killed himself in order to give Biff a better shot at being a success. Willy doesnt understand that killi ng himself is wrong and he is not looking for any pity. Willy has sacrificed his own life so that Biff could have a better life. This truly does make him a tragic hero.Willy Loman is a tragic figure in the play Death of a Salesman. Willy faces a superior source in the play and puts his life on the line for his beliefs and the beliefs of others. He meets the requirements of Millers article for a tragic hero. Death of a Salesman also meets Millers requirements for a tragic play because of Willys role in the novel along with the other standards that Miller sets for a tragedy. The exploration of tragedy by people such as Miller helps to define it more clearly.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

The Balanced Scorecard Approach

Coca-cola follow (hereafter referred to as the Company or the Organization) is the owner of four of the worlds top five nonalcoholic scintillation boozing brands known to almost e precise American. Coca-cola was established in 1886 and presently, it is operational in at least 200 countries having at the minimum 90,500 associates worldwide and suffice 1. 5 billions ( The Coca-cola 2008 p. 1 )of customers each day .The Companys overall goal, which is its mission is to refresh the world in body, mind and spirit, inspire moments of optimism through their brands and actions and to realise value and make a difference in all their engagements ( Mission, Vision, 2006) The Company is a manufacturer and seller of soft (carbonated) drinks with various brands, the most popular of which is the criterion brand, Coke. In assessing its success, the Organization does not only count its monetary sales and profits but as well as its effect to the world in general.Coca-cola Company tries to be ope n and accessible to everyone who needs information on anything it does. Financial records, company information, customer-goal, investor values and press releases argon all accessible at the Companys website, www. thecoca-colacompany. com. Aside from the abovementioned mission, the Organizations vision include the following (Mission, Vision, 2006) ? People Being a great place to work where hoi polloi are inspired to be the best they can be. ? Planet Being a responsible global citizen that makes a difference.? Portfolio Bringing to the world a portfolio of beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy peoples desires and needs. ? Partners Nurturing a winning network of partners and building mutual loyalty. ? Profit Maximizing return to shareowners while being mindful of our overall responsibilities Moreover, the Companys strategies are incorporated in its values which include the following ? Leadership The courage to shape a better future ? Passion attached in heart and mind ? Integrit y Be real ? Accountability If it is to be, its up to me ? Collaboration Leverage collective genius? Innovation Seek, imagine, create, delight ? property What we do, we do well SLP II. Indeed, customer is very important. Without a customer, any financial organization would not survive As Coca-colas way to retain real customers and to encourage potential ones they have the following guidelines Vision Bringing to the world a portfolio of beverage brands that anticipate and satisfy peoples desires and needs. Mission Refresh the world in body, mind and spirit. Strategy What we do, we do well To follow the guidelines and achieve what it wants, a set of very specific objectives must be met.The achievement of customer take objective, which includes the satisfaction of customers, their retention, and larger market share (The Balanced Scorecard) makes the business perform better. Why is the customer very important? Because there is a direct correlation coefficient between financial results and customer. (Shaw, 2000, p. 37) The Company, to satisfy its mission and vision, through its strategies for its existing and potential customers, the following objectives are setul ? To satisfy customers with the gratifying taste of high quality products? The first appearance to customers of products with diverse and fortified products that are healthier. ? Production of healthy beverages lines which are tasty yet they are not damaging to health. The three objectives above are very important. The Company has acknowledge that obesity and other health problems (The Coca-cola, 2008, p. 12) may endanger the potential income of the Company as well as its name, which can be dark to a company that established reputations world-wide, and branding has enabled international reputations to be created (Kay, 1995, p. 15).Looking from these objectives, it can be seen that the third one is the most specific of the three. production of healthy beverages lines which are tasty yet they are not da maging to health would result to the introduction of products taste diversity and fortification making them healthier that would make customers pleasant with gratifying high-quality (healthy) beverages. This achieves the strategy of the Company stating, What we do, we do well and also its mission stating. Refresh the world in body, mind and spirit an unhealthy drink would not satisfy the mind and spirit.

Friday, May 24, 2019


SLIP is a privately held investment corporation founded in 1961. It had become a diversified company consisting of a f entirely of 9 subsidiaries. The oldest three were In the home products business a Virginia-based brass softwargon company, an outside lantern company based In Maine, and an antique re toil furniture company in Maryland. A second group of four subsidiaries formed in the sasss was focussed on research in the fields of consumer product marketing, computer software, tax research, and investment financial analysis.Hoping to capitalize on their tax and investment expertise, they belatedly build up reflect Lane Development Corporation and Spring Lane cancel Resources, which were Involved In real e conjure up development innate(p) resource exploration, respectively. Spring Lane employed a total of 525 people and had revenues of $30 million in 1987. Spring Lane Natural Resources was formed to pursue natural resource exploration because SLIP management felt that favorab le tax laws provided them opportunities to achieve significant profits In this arena.Their primary goal was to find and produce natural fellate from shale, to capture the so-called air division 29 tax credits associated with such gas. Ingress passed this tax credit In 1978 as part of the Natural Gas Policy Act in order to stimulate recitationing for natural gas found in shale. Although natural gas exploration was clearly riskier than their other investments, SLIP felt the risks could be managed by drilling only sites that were surrounded on three or four sides by existing healthfuls. To date, slur had drilled four substantiallys.It wasnt difficult operationally to drill the wells, simply It was challenging to find enough high- quality investment opportunities. In the first five months of production, unitary of the wells had already paid back 52 pctage of its initial investment well ahead of the argue payout. The other wells were also doing instead well and all were on sch edule for meeting their tar fall return on investment. smudge hopes to drill 20 more wells in 1988. Formed. This gave calumny full responsibility for choosing the sites and managing the well if gas was found. SLUR would retain near 25 percent ownership and transmit the rest to several full general partners.As managing general partner, SLUR was responsible for hiring a general contractor who would do the drilling. Slurs geologist, Brad Thomas, would determine whether there was enough gas to make it worth completing the well. If he decided to go ahead, the general contractor would be in charge of the day-to-day operations of the well. SLUR had entered into a Joint venture with Excel skill of Bridgeport, West Virginia, in which it was concord that Excel would act as the general contractor for all of Slurs wells in West Virginia. Excel also agreed to take a small ownership interest in each of these wells.The Bailey opportunity Base Case Analysis Exhibit 1 is a facsimile of the spreadsheet developed by Lisa Weatherboard to analyze the Bailey Prospect. The Bailey Prospect is surrounded by four producing wells from the target gas formation. Thus, SLUR was pretty confident that they would cause the gas formation, but they were mindful that there is always a possibility that due to geological anomalies (e. G. , drilling into a fault), a well might bolt out and result in zero production. Brad Thomas (the geologist) estimated the probability of this kind of failure at the Bailey Prospect to be about 10 percent.If they were successful, SLUR would sell the gas to pipeline distributors who would pay a price for the gas that depends on the BTU content of the gas. 2 The BTU content of the gas would not be fill outn until the well was producing, but once reducing, the BTU content would not change over the lifetime of the well. Brad Thomas estimated the BTU content of the gas to be 55 BTU per cubic foot this was the norm of the BTU contents at the nearby wells. Th e current price paid by the pipeline is $1. 90 per AMBIT (million BTU) the price paid by the pipeline would be tied to the market prices for gas and, hence, might change over time. 3 Lisa assumed that prices would grow with inflation over time. 4 The rate at which gas would flow from the well would not be known until the well was completed. Brad estimated that the gas would initially flow at a rate of 33,000 Mac thousand cubic feet) per course of instruction and then twilight following the schedule shown in Exhibit 1. The spreadsheet shown in Exhibit 1 is essentially an income statement over the life of the well. (The spreadsheet goes out 25 years only the first 13 years are shown in the exhibit. ) The gross revenue is the price per Mac of gas times the Mac of gas produced in a given year.To get to net cash flows, royalties, expenses, and taxes must be deducted 1) From gross revenue, a 12. 5 percent royalty payment to the owner of the mineral rights is deducted, leaving net reven ue. This royalty rate was the standard argental pall to ten property owners In ten west Valhalla area. 2) Excel Energy would be paid approximately $300 per month to operate the well. Lisa had budgeted an additional $3,000 per year for other expenses associated with the lease that might be incurred but couldnt now be accurately forecast. These personifys were increased annually to reflect inflation. 3) Local taxes of 4. Percent times the gross revenue would be paid to the county and a severance tax5 of 3. 4 percent would be paid to the state of West Virginia. 4) Depreciation expense for year O equaled the intangible drilling cost6, which as 72. 5 percent times the total well cost. The remainder of the drilling cost would be depreciated on a straight-line basis over seven years. 5) To compute profit after tax, depletion7, and state and federal official income taxes were subtracted from profit earlier tax. Numerically, depletion was the smaller of 50 percent times the profit forwar ds tax or 1 5 percent times the revenue. ) The state income tax equaled the tax rate multiplied by the difference between profit before tax and depletion. This tax was then reduced by a credit equal to one- half of the severance tax paid to the state. ) Federal income tax was calculated by multiplying the tax rate times the profit before tax less depletion and state tax paid. The federal tax was then reduced by an energy tax credit as allowed in Section 29 of the tax code the tax credit was determined by multiplying the current tax credit rate ($0. 76 per AMBIT in year 1) by the amount of qualifying production that year.The tax credit rate was increased each year with inflation, but its future value was in the pass of Congress and far from certain. The after-tax cash flow is given by adding back depreciation and depletion to the after-tax profit. Finally, there is the issue of the lease bonus. A lease bonus is a cash payment or bonus paid too landowner in exchange for the drilling and mineral rights. The pro represent drilling area at the Bailey Prospect lies on a farm where the owners Mr.. And Mrs.. Bryan Cotter had been reluctant to allow drilling on their land this is why the surrounding areas were developed and this property was not.Mr.. Cotter had recently passed away and Mrs.. Cotter (at the urging of her children) was now leaveing to allow drilling and production on her land. Though no offer had yet been made, SLUR had proposed pass Mrs.. Cotter a bonus of $40,000 the lease bonuses for similar properties in the area had been in this range. Financially, if the well is successful, the lease bonus comes directly off the bottom line, providing no tax deductions or depreciation. 8 on ten Dads AT tense mummers, ten prospect looked peachy It NAS an rater-tax equity payback period of about 35 months and an immanent rate of return of about 29%.To calculate the net present value (NP), Lisa discounted the cash flows using a discount rate of 15 percent, which was Slices bank vault rate for projects like this. The result was an NP of approximately $79,000. Your Assignment Your boss, Steve Bodily, had presented the results of Aliass analysis to Henry Oysters, a potential general partner. Oysters was impressed with the base-case scenario, but was very touch on about the potential downside risks. What if the well doesnt work? How do you know that it will produce that much gas? What if gas prices continue their recent decline? expert about every number in here is a guess. Bodily was prepared for the first question and knew that, if the well failed, the pretax loss would be approximately $170,000 the cost of drilling the well plus the lease bonus or a net after-tax loss of Bodily was not prepared for the other questions but promised Oysters that he would get back to him with a complete description of the risks associated with the Bailey Prospect. The goal wasnt Just to evaluate the Bailey Prospect but, more generally, to get a better unders tanding of the risks associated with the kinds of investments SLUR was pursuing.Since Lisa Weatherboard is out of town, Bodily came to you and asked you to examine the risks associated with the Bailey Prospect. Your report will go to SLIP as well as to Oysters. In your conversation with Bodily, he posed the following questions ) What are the key risks here? 2) What is the projects expected NP taking into account all of these risks? 3) How risky is this project? What is the take on that we have a shun NP on this? 4) How big lease bonus can we afford? Not that I plan to offer Mrs.. Cotter more than $40,000, but it would be good to know how far we can go and still make money. ) What if the Section 29 credit goes away? Congress has been making some encumbrance about that lately. 6) What if the well fails? While weve got the crew out there, should we drill another well? 7) Finally, I know that you dont have time to run numbers for our livelong portfolio f properties, but suppose we h ad 20 opportunities Just like the Bailey Prospect, how risky would this portfolio be? Which would the key uncertainties be? A qualitative discussion will practise we dont need hard numbers on this, but we should be prepared Tort ten question.Bodily concluded, Those are the kinds of things that come to mind. Of course, I havent had much time to suppose about it and could be missing some important issues. Ive scheduled a meeting with Oysters and some of the SLIP partners for next Thursday. Could you prepare a 20-minute presentation on this for then? Good. Thanks. Ill be out of town until then. If you have any questions about doing these kinds of analyses, you might try Jack Grayson. Hes done a lot of these risk analyses and will be at the meeting on Thursday. You might want to talk to Brad Thomas as well. Additional Information Fortunately, Brad Thomas (the geologist) was accessible and offered to help. As far as drilling another well in the event the first one fails, Thomas said, Yeah, that might be a good idea. A second well would be cheaper to drill. Of course, it would also be less likely to succeed. If the second one fails too, it would be pointless to drill a tierce ell. He estimated the cost of drilling the second well to be roughly 75% of the cost of drilling the first well you dont have to truck all the drilling equipment out again and you dont have to pay another lease bonus. The cost of completing a second well (if successful) would be the same as the cost of completing the first. Thomas estimated the probability of the second well succeeding (given that the first fails) to be . 50. He also indicated that, if the first well fails, he would rewrite his estimated initial flow rate down by a third. The decline rate would remain the same. Thomas also indicated that it would not make sense to drill a second well if the first is successful since the two wells would be draining the same area. A second well would speed production youd get roughly twice a s much production at first but you probably double the decline rate as well and end up with about the same total amount of gas (whitethornbe slightly more) and be stuck with twice the drilling cost. On the other issues Thomas said, Yeah, this business is pretty much a crap shoot. Im a geologist. I cant tell you much about Congress or natural gas prices, but I did work up some ranges on the estimates I gave Lisa. See Exhibit 2. ) Ive found that I give better estimates if I think about the ranges before I give a particular value.I actually keep track of my estimates and then later see how I did. While I dont always get the right answer, my ranges are pretty good. These ranges, Thomas says, can be interpreted as 10th and 90th percentiles numbers such that there is a I-in-10 chance that the true value will be below and above these amounts. The base case numbers used in Aliass spreadsheet can be interpreted as 50th percentiles or medians. Let me know if you need anything else. Jack Gr ayson at SLIP could only offer general advice. As far as ontogeny ranges for the other uncertainties, use your Judgment.I can send you some historical data on inflation and natural gas prices (see Exhibit 3), but looking forward well have to guess. If it is important, I may be able to get you more information next week. I know a consultant won may De addle to Nell us Walt ten gas price Toreros t. He could probably get us more on inflation too. I also know a lawyer in D. C. Who has been working with the IRS on Section 29 issues. She might be able to tell us more about that. yet I dont want to call these people unless it is important.Lets talk on Monday ND we can decide then whether to call them. Grayson also suggested that you should be careful about the discount rate. The 15 percent rate that Lisa used is risk adjusted it informally adjusts for the possibility that the well fails, uncertainty about operating costs, etc. Since you are going to explicitly model these risks, you sh ould use a lower discount rate. Because all of these risks with this investment including natural gas prices are pretty much uncorrelated with the market as a whole, I would suggest using a risk-free discount rate.The yield of 5- to 10-year treasury bonds is currently around 9 percent why onto you use that rate instead. See you on Monday. pick pick *Note The production decline judge shown near the top of the spreadsheet are highly correlated. If you have fast decline in the first year, you are likely to have rapid decline in subsequent years as well. Similarly, if you have slow decline in the first year, you are likely to have slow decline in subsequent years. To capture this dependence, we need to vary all of the decline rates together.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Seattle University Essay

Why do you feel that Seattle University is a good match with your educational goals? Seattle Universitys Jesuit teaching makes this college one of my top choices. My approach to education is eerily similar to Seattle Universitys mission statement. I thrive best in an milieu that focuses on educating the whole person through academics and spirituality. Since faith is a key component of my life, I want an education that views intellect and faith in a complementary way. Combined with Seattle Universitys emphasis on community service, I will also learn how to make an impact both locally and globally.As I grow into adulthood I want to push myself. I also want to find new ways to make a difference in my surrounding community. Through Seattle Universitys various service programs, I can nurture that goal. Albeit there are many Jesuit universities scattered throughout the country, Seattle Universitys Matteo Ricci College of Humanities sets it apart from all others. I am extremely fortunate t o attend John F. Kennedy Memorial High School where Matteo Ricci classes are offered. I am currently taking the Public Policy/Social Justice course.The class has uncovered various avenues of critical thinking that I have never considered before. I have discovered more about myself in this one semester than I have in the previous three years of high school. I play off into the groove of Seattle University courses and their well-rounded, introspective distinctiveness. Finally, Seattle is home. I was born and raised in this eccentric city, a city whose culture is reflected by Seattle Universitys student body. I win in diverse surroundings, because I enjoy being exposed to many different types of people and cultures. I believe there is something to learn from all walks of life.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

The Time Is Ticking Away: an Analysis of “the Tell-Tale Heart”

The Time is Ticking Away An Analysis of The Tell-Tale Heart People in society today are no different from those of previous generations in that they have always possessed basic principles of fear, paranoia, and anxiety that have carried on, and are clearly evident throughout history. In the 18th century, Edgar Allen Poe, a major actor of the time based one of his more famous works on those basic principles of fear, paranoia, and anxiety. The Tell-Tale Heart takes a normal human creation being that anyone can link up to, and shows just how dark and corrupt the human mind can act under certain everyday circumstances.Poe reveals the process the human mind goes through when frame under stress and the fear of being discovered, the reader is able to tinct and put them self in the same position, Culminating with the narrator breaking down, afflicted by the basic principles, showing the reader just what the human mind is capable of doing. Poe starts his story with the narrator talking to himself, justifying that hes not insane, and that the story hes about to tell you is completely rational. Much like you and I, the narrator lives a normal life with all the issues of stress and annoyances present.One annoyance the narrator has to handle with is the eye of the doddery man he lives with the eye bothers him so much and slowly eats away at him, until eventually it causes him to take action. The narrator finally cant take it anymore and stands outside the old mans room door waiting for several days for the perfect time to strike in severalise to rid his mind of the odious eye. Poe paints an image in our heads as we read this example in the text that the narrator is very meticulous. In order to show this throughout the story, Poe uses several literary devices.Often within the story, Poe uses a grouping of small sentences that create a rhythm like that of a heartbeat. Object on that point was none. Passion there was none. I loved the old man. He had never wronged me. He had never given me insult. For his gold I had no desire. I think it was his eye Yes, it was this. In Charles E. Mays article, The Tell-Tale Heart Overview, he explains, To understand the ingenious way Poe develops this story about a split in the self, one must evidence the nature of the narrators obsession.He insists that he loves the old man, has no personal animosity toward him, does not want his money, and has not been injured by him. Instead, he says he wishes to kill the old man because of his eye. By showing that the narrator is so precise and over thinks just about everything, Poe unravels how the narrator is insane, but thinks of himself as a rational human being. Poe constantly alludes to a major ideal of the story, which is time. As the narrator becomes close to finally killing the old man and being discovered, time is constantly stress and very evident.At first, the narrator is cool, calm, and collective, but slowly after he has done the deed paranoia kicks in and a sense of false security and the fear of being revealed. Although there is no way to understand this kind of motivation except to declare the narrator mad, the reader must try to determine the method and gist of the madness. For Poe, there is no such thing as meaningless madness in fiction. As the tension and anxiety pick up in the story, Poe asks us to put ourselves in that situation and feel the pressure and paranoia the narrator is going through due to his actions.The narrator struggles so much with what he has done and if he is going to be discovered, he hides the body of the old man so meticulously that no one should be able to find it and ever whop what has taken place. As the narrators paranoia sets in that is one of the basic principles evident in every human being the narrator starts to question himself and whether or not he did a good enough job at hiding the body that he eventually breaks down. They heard they suspected they KNEW they were making a mockery of my horror this I thought, and this I think. But anything was better than this agonyAnything was more tolerable than this derision I could bear those hypocritical smiles no seven-day I felt that I must scream or die and now again hark louder louder louder LOUDER Villains I shrieked, dissemble no more I admit the deed tear up the planks here, here it is the beating of his hideous heart (Poe). Within each of us are the basic principles of fear, paranoia, and anxiety, Poe wanted to show us that by giving a prime example of someone just like you or I that you can relate to and witness the set up one goes through under each principle.Poe might have gained this dark outlook due to all the neglect he had from his family, and all the substance contumely he went through to try and cope with all his problems and step away from reality. He wanted to show exactly what people are capable of and what they do under the affects of fear, anxiety, and paranoia in order to prove that being in sane is really a matter of opinion based on personal experiences and events rather than a textbox example. Poe faced his own fear about madness daily throughout his life.At a very young age he was orphaned, and his foster parents rarely see him. He was scared of change and rarely did anything that wasnt second nature to him. Constantly plagued by stressful events in his life such as about related deaths, Poe lived a very miserable depressing life that eventually attributed to his demise. In almost every piece he produced there is a source that can be related to him and the difficulties he has to go through. Even after Poes death his form of writing lives on along with his ideals, which we encounter and relate to on a daily basis.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

The Story of Macbeth

In the story of Macbeth, there is a lot of ups and downs that go along. How every iodin takes the events that are going on will square up who are the strong ones and who are the weak ones. At one point all of the char make believeers will have a flaw which will cause them to act a certain way. Many events that go on shocked, excited, and worried most.Every action will lead to a deeper event. Although everyone seems to have their head together at the beginning, there is alot of flaws that these characters are not showing right away. Most of these characters will leave and reader at a sharp dealing point. These situations that the characters are ever so falling into are because of the characters poor decisions that leave the character where he/she cannot change or controls certains situations.Macbeths mind set and actions will show how he really feels just about certain situations and help a reader understand why Macbeths actions are the way they are. Not just Macbeths actions, its Lady Macbeths actions too. No one knows which way to turn to when events start to drop out of nowhere. In the story of Macbeth, you can see that the troubled main character, Macbeth is in situations that you can see his flaws clearly, making this story a tragedy.To start off in at 1 of The Tragedy of Macbeth, the setting is in Scotland. Lady Macbeth comes across the three witches, the Weird Sisters, she had made the witches mad so the witches knew to go after her husband. So that is exactly what they did. The witches said they will meet Macbeth when the battles los and won and when fair is foul and foul is fair.The witches will tell the characters one thing and will think in their head another meaning to what they just said, so the characters will be confused and do or swan the wrong things that will cause a huge situations that can be a life of death situation. For example, when the witches told Macbeth that he will be king, also when they told him a human cannot harm him till th e trees move. Another thing that the witches did was curse Lady macbeth when she would not give the witches some of her crackers.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Opportunity and Threat of Cadbury

Opportunity First of all , Cadbury should increase in foodstuff handlely of developing counties. Especially expand into the emerging markets of Nigeria ,China and Russia, base on their growing populations, change magnitude consumer wealth and increasing demand for confectionery products. So that It would be a potential market for Cadbury. Moreover , based on their strong tarnish chance upon , Cadbury can try doing different types of businesses like innovatively doing Co-Brand Marketing with other brand industries . Ingredient branding in food industries for face published chocolate milk ,ice cream still chocolate tofu pudding.Also doing complementary branding like published T-shirt and accessories . Besides the market , Cadbury should responds to change in consumer tastes and preferences because consumers are more concern health nowadays , low-fat, organic and natural confectionery demand appears much stronger . So that a healthier snacks with lower calories need to be deve loped. For example Cadbury should dart some links which led to sugar-free & center filled chewing gum varieties and Cadbury premium indulgence treat. culture but not least , Cadbury can put more effort on reducing be even increasing efficiency .For instance , Moving production to low cost countries, where unsanded materials and research lab our is cheaper besides India . Because Cadbury s production lines are mostly located in high cost countries like Australia and US . And also reducing internal costs like doing global sourcing , procurement , efficient fork out chain and wise investment . Threat First of all , Cadbury pass on face the intense challenger against other branded suppliers even global competitors . According to above statistic , Mars-Wrigley and Nestle are the principal(prenominal) competitors particularly Mars-Wrigley the strongest market sharing in total confectionery .When they set an aggressive price and promotion exercise , it s possible to occur price wars in the market which will induce a main threat for Cadbury. Especially affecting their marketing sharing and profits . For example there would be seasonal worker sales slumps all year round which will reflect to an increase in cost of raw material needs . Second one is emulator problem. Especially when Cadbury expand into developing countries like China, based on their unhealthy legal system , it s easy to appear Copycat problem which will totally affect their profits , market sharing and their unique images .For example Tempo Tissues is the main Copycat problem sufferer when entering in China market . Many fakes products have approached in the market. resist but not least , due to its confectionary products , It s important for them to be aware of upcoming threats . For example taking notes of the changes in the consumers buying trends . For example low-fat, organic and natural confectionery demand appears much stronger . So that they should shift from chocolates to healthy snacks , otherwise there may be tarnish the Cadbury s brand name and totally affect their income .

Sunday, May 19, 2019

John Rawls’ Theory of Justice: Contribution to Solve Some Political Issues in the Philippines

conjuration Rawls is perhaps the nigh hearty intellectual in philosophical ethics to have written in the past hundred years. It is more or less impossible to address ethics in contemporary philosophy without saying something about John Rawls. substitution to his theory of justice are the concepts of fairness and equality from behind what he terms a soft palate of ignorance. Rawlss veil of ignorance is a component of the steering people can construct ordination.He refers to an original set in which a person is attempting to determine a fair arrangement for society without any preconceive notions or prejudices. In this original position, people are behind what Rawls calls a Veil of Ignorance and do not know where they will fall in the social hierarchy in terms of race, class, sex, disability, and other relevant factors.Rawls is a Kantian liberal in that he believes that principles of justice should be universalizable, and so the only way to ensure that people will select fair principles of justice is to be certain that they do not know how the principles they select might affect them as individuals. A person behind the veil of ignorance does not know which side of a social contract he or she will be on, does not know his or her race, class, sex, or status in society.You can read alsoJustice dodging Position PaperA person who does not know what privileges he or she will be born with (or without ) is, in Rawls view, more likely to construct a society that does not arbitrarily dish out privilege based on characteristics that should have no bearing on what people get. Rawls believes that a society cannot be just without fairness and equality and believes this veil of ignorance both reveals the biases of current society and can uphold to prevent biases in establishing future social arrangements.Rawls is often thought of as a liberal philosopher effrontery his position emphasizing fairness regardless of social status. His philosophy can be used to unloose programs like affirmative action but has also been used by the more politically worldly-minded to argue that the American political system allows each person a fair chance and that most people would choose the American political system from behind a veil of ignorance. Source John Rawls-A Theory of Justice

Saturday, May 18, 2019

To what extent do World Trade Organization rules act as a barrier to international environmental governance?

IntroductionThe delaying opening of the arteries of world lot through the World look at Organisation (WTO), while resuscitating intertheme economics and being a symbol of the hyperliberalisation of trade, has been strangling surroundal protection (Conca 2000, Lowenfeld 2008 ONeill & burn down 2005). The need for an effective, gamy and objective way to resolve inter case disputes is arguably, in the gentle of the relentless and inexorable integration of markets, nation-states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before (Friedman 1999), stronger than ever and a retreat to the unilateralist ideologies which gave birth to the First World struggle is al to the highest degree unthinkable now given our interdependence on each opposite. The question is can the environment be protected while the aggressive expansion of trade continuesThe birth, by accident, of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1945, was part of an indefatigable drive to combat trade protect ionism, discriminatory trade policies and most significantly armed conflict as a means of resolving disputes in the wake of the turn world war (Irwin, Mavroidis & Sykes 2008, Lowenfeld 2008, Wilcox 1949). One of the pronounced goals of trade liberalization is the removal of trade barriers and with the accession of chinaw atomic number 18 to the WTO, which replaced the GATT in 1995, the hyperliberalisation of trade is gathering pace with 153 members and 97% of world trade (Conca 2000, p.484). This unrestricted access, while professedly positive for economic growth, has been perceived by many commentators as being inimical to the quest for worldwide ecological sustainability as Conca, the most sunplowedical critic, puts it (Ibid). World Trade Organisation rules accept, to a large effect, acted as a barrier to international environmental g everywherenance twain substantively and procedurall(a)y. In terms of the national laws and the WTO, the destabilization of international env ironmental regimes and procedural rules the WTO has hindered rather than helped environmental initiatives both nationally and internationally. There lay down been virtually signs of progress, however, with a joint report by the United Nations and the WTO in 2010 acknowledging for the first time that some restrictions on the liberalization of trade will be needed to fight climate change (WTO-UNEP Report 2010) and other commentators discerning a move towards an accommodation betwixt the notions of free trade and environmental protection (ONeill & ruin 2005, p.319). It is also vital to note that Concas strident objections, while relevant, were written in the year 2000 later on safe five years of the WTO and therefore omits one important WTO decisions. Nevertheless the authors acerb review must be answered and his view is not entirely with come let out of the closet reasonableification even in 2012The WTO has proved to be profoundly anti-environmental both procedurally and su bstantively, handing down environmentally damaging decisions whenever it has had the chance to do so. Fears of a passage to a dirty bottom are proving prescient, and optimism that trade rules can be greened from within has waned appreciably (Conca 2000, p.484). bump 1WTO rules and the environment WTO/GATT, national laws and decisionsOne of the central objections to the WTO rules in the sphere of environmental policy is that they, in Concas words, undercut national policies (2000, p.486). Erich Vranes adopts more mature terminology for this level of interaction which he labels as vertical as between domestic posters and WTO law (Vranes 2009). Concas objections arise when a national environmental decree is challenged under WTO rules and, without exception between 1995 and 2000, handed down an anti-environmental decision (Conca 2000, p.486). There contribute been six decisions relating to environmental issues under the old GATT regime and just three under the forward-looking WTO rules (WTO website 2012). The case which sparked the hostility to the GATT/WTO regimes is the tuna fish fish/Dolphin case (case 1) where dolphins were being caught in tuna nets and dying unnecessarily in the hunt for tuna (Lowenfeld 2008, p.315). The US government sought to banish all tuna imports from Mexico which brought a dispute settlement deed under the old GATT rules under term XXIII. the Statess defence under article XX (the general exceptions article) was based on the protection of animal life and the conservation of exhaustible resources and proved purposeless as the add-in found in favour of the Mexicans with the ban on tuna contrary to article XI(1) of the GATT and unjustified by Article XX(b) or (g) (Lowenfeld 2008, p.317). The other cases under the old GATT regime concerned American taxation on gas guzzling cars brought by the EU in October 1994, the so-called son of tuna/Dolphin where the EU successfully challenged the Marine Mammal Protection move in June 199 4, the father of the tunny/Dolphin dispute successfully brought by Canada against the USA in February 1982 and finally two successful cases brought by the US against firstly Thailand for the restriction and taxation of cigarettes in November 1990 and secondly against Canada regarding the exports of herring and salmon (WTO website accessed 2012).Concas sizable critique was written only after two WTO decisions on the environment had been handed down and the rules were see narrowly firstly United States Standards for reformulated and conventional flatulence in 1996. In this case, brought by Venezuela and Brazil against the US, measures to manipulate imported gasoline complied with air quality restrictions were found to be discriminatory although the WTO panel did emphasize that it was Americas discrimination against imports, which were subject to more stringent measures than exports, which crippled their case not that they didnt have a defence or indeed a noble cause. Secondly, in a strikingly kindred complaint to the tuna/dolphin decision brought in 1998, India, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand all challenged US legislation which banned all imports of commercialized seafood, pursuant to the Endangered Species Act, to save turtles instead of dolphins United States Import Prohibition of Certain peewit and Shrimp Products. Although the US lost this case, again by virtue of discriminatory behavior, it is clear that the seeds were sown for a fresh start and as Lowenfeld points out, this appellate decision had sought to dampen the conflict between the trade and environment communities (2008, p.323). Furthermore, had the US not discriminated, then it is sealed that they would have won both on imports of gasoline and shrimp and indeed the second decision in the shrimp case confirms this (ONeill & fire 2005) . This analysis leaves just one WTO decision in the 21st century European Communities Measures affecting asbestos and asbestos-containing products. In th is trailblazing decision, brought in 2001 by Canada against the EC ban on asbestos products, the WTO panel found, affirmed later on appeal, that France was entitled to ban much(prenominal) rail atful products under the very provisions so controversial in the tuna/dolphins casethe Panel found that the French ban could be justified under Article XX(b). In other words, the measure could be regarded as one which was necessary to protect animal, human, plant life or health. It also met the conditions of the eyelid of Article XX. It therefore ruled in favour of the European Communities. (WTO website accessed 2012)1.2 International environmental regimesAnother powerful criticism leveled at the WTO rules is the perceived parallel at an international level where Conca discerns a WTO-based threat to a colossal array of international environment regimes (Conca 2000, p.487). This threat, which Vrane labels as being on a horizontal level between WTO law and public international law including treaty agreements (Vrane 2010), is, according to Conca, brought virtually because these international environmental regimes a good deal depend on trade related measures for their implementation and observance (2000, p.488). The main problems are firstly that the WTOs existence is having a chilling effect on global political imagination (Ibid). Conca justifiably points out that the 1994 Amendment to the Basel Convention, which sought to ban the trade in hazardous unfoundeds, may wellhead be one of the go to target the trafficking of environmental hazards. The continued political impasse concerning the Kyoto Treaty lends weight to Concas observations although perhaps, in light of the global recession, the international environmental arena is anyway sterile (Rajamani 2008). Secondly Article XI of GATT, which prohibits numeric import/export restrictions is often cited as being a stumbling block and could well be utilise as the basis of a WTO challenge against environmental regim es such(prenominal) as the one which exists with respect to log (Conca 2000, p.489). This problem is still a hypothetical one only if nonetheless is relevant and demonstrates perhaps that the rules have had a chilling effect on numerous proposed environmental regimes (ONeill & Burns 2005, p.330). Conca cites the example of a new logging regime which failed to materialize at the Seattle conference (ibid). Finally the Basel Convention on hazardous waste is cited by Conca as a battlegroundIneffectiveness and a huge loophole for waste recycling kept the waste tradealive, leading a coalition of developing countries and environmental activists to push through the Basel ban at a 1994 conference of the parties. The constant threat of a WTO challenge has inhibited the collection of the national ratifications needed for the amendment to enter into force, and undercuts efforts to use the regime (Conca 2000, p.489)Part 2 Procedural Rules of the WTO2.1 Burden of proof, precautionary article o f belief and Amicus CuriaeFinally the rules of the WTO themselves have been justifiably seen as stacking the deck against those who are fighting for the environment (Lowenfeld 2008, p.327). The gist of proof is, as Conca observes, squarely on the shoulders of those arguing for environmental precaution (Conca 2000, p.485). The presumption of a violation means that the member against whom the complaint has been brought, will rebut the charge and the party which is asserting the affirmative of a particular introduce will bear the burden of proof a rule which is universal to all disputes and not just the environmental issues (Sebastian 2010). Lowenfeld also points to the precautionary principle which dictates thatuncertainty regarding the adverse environmental effects of an activity should not be a bar to adoption of measures to prohibit or otherwise regulate the activity, but that such uncertainty provides an affirmative justification for adopting such measures (2008, p.333).The B eef Hormones case is often cited in connection with this embryologic principle. The Appellate Body held here that this principle was not yet part of customary law but that it was commonsense to weigh the severity of the danger against the degree of likelihood that the danger would be enhanced by the challenged activity (Ibid). Lowenfeld suggests that this line of reasoning could lead to the WTO adopting a worst- case scenario argument which would, quite understandably, undermine environmental protection (Ibid). The author concludes by observingthe precautionary principle as formulated by the European Community seems too harsh. On the one hand, it is susceptible to misuse for purposes of competition and protection on the other, it seems both to overestimate and underestimate science (Ibid at p.334).Further to the burden of proof and the precautionary principle are the Amicus Curiae briefs the closed door proceedings used to make it difficult for the stakeholders usually so close int imated with environmental action (charities and so on to participate and are still difficult to surmount. This procedural innovation, which is a creature of statute, has enabled certain organisations to provide opinions to supplement decisions which are often made by lawyers and economists who usually have little knowledge of environmental effects (Conca 2000, p.485). Those submitting the Amicus Curiae briefs can be WTO members or non-state actors and it is important to note that the acceptance of such briefs is an exercise of discretion on the part of the Panel (Stern 2006). The fact that such briefs have become more commonplace undoes Concas arguments a little but, as remark above, it is ultimately a question of discretion as to whether an organization is allowed to submit such a brief. What is clear is that the complex ways in which ecosystems can be corrupted do not always fit easily into the burden of proof system.2.1 Interpretation of Article XX of GATTThe interpretation of this article is key to much of the criticism of the GATT/WTO. In both Tuna-Dolphin and Shrimp-Turtle cases it has been noticed that these general exceptions to GATT provisions has been interpreted narrowly by both GATT and WTO panels respectively (ONeill & Burns 2005, p.325). This narrow interpretation has fuelled a lot of criticism with the panel in Shrimp/Turtle expressly saying that the WTO supports countries who hold such noble goals and that it was because of the USs discriminatory behavior that they held against the US. As noted above, however, the decision in European Communities Measures affecting asbestos and asbestos-containing products could be the beginning of a new era of rendering the exceptions as they relate to environmental protection. Certainly the WTO has been sensitive to the criticism it has received from many quarters close its handling of such cases. Whether Concas observation that Playing by WTO rules, the first definitive proof of harm will often be ir reversible ecosystem collapse is debatable in the current climate and, arguably, about a decade out of touch (2000, p.485).ConclusionIn conclusion the rules of the WTO to a large extent are acting as a barrier to international environmental governance. In terms of the undermining of national and international laws, the procedural flaws in terms of the burden of proof, the precautionary principle and the amicus curiae briefs as well as the narrow interpretation of article XX, the WTO has a lot of damage to undo in the flood soar years. Much has been written on this volatile subject and it is clear that Conca (2000) is the most scathing critic. His polemic is out of date, however, and although many of his conclusions are valid his overriding point, that there is an anti-green agenda in the WTO is slowly being unraveled. thence as far back as the 1998 Shrimp-Turtle case it has been discerned by astute commentators like ONeill and Burns that the decision is a pro-environmental one, a lbeit resulting in ultimate defeat for the USA. The recent joint UN-WTO report (2010) is an indicator of the pedagogy which the WTO is going in and the most recent case involving environmental action, the EU-Canada Asbestos case, confirms that a broader interpretation of article XX can provide positive environmental results. Perhaps the greening of the WTO has begun and no doubt the scathing criticism of authors like Conca had something to do with their new-found green credentials. A proper reform of the WTO rules is required but perhaps the tide has already turned as Barkin observesthe incompatibility between the rules of the international trading regime and the need for responsible for(p) management of the global environment is substantially overstated, and that official interpretations of these rules are becoming consistently more environmentally-friendly over time (Barkin 2005, p.334).BibliographyJournalsConca, Ken (2000) The WTO and the Undermining of Global Environmental Gov ernance Review of International Political Economy 73 Autumn pp 484 494Rajamani (2008) From Berlin to Bali and Beyond Killing Kyoto Softly? International & Comparative Law Quarterly 57(4) pp909-9392.0 BooksBarkin, Samuel.J (2005) The Environment, Trade and International Organisations in Dauvergne, Peter (ed) vade mecum of Global Environmental political science Edward Elgar CheltenhamFriedman, Thomas (2000) The Lexus and the Olive channelize Anchor Books UKIrwin, Mavroidis & Sykes (2008) The Genesis of the GATT Cambridge University compact worldwideLowenfeld, Andreas F. International Economic Law (2008) (2nd ed) Oxford Uni Press Oxford, New York.ONeill, Kate & Burns, C.G William (2005) Trade Liberalization and Global Environmental Governance the Potential for Conflict in Dauvergne, Peter (ed) Handbook of Global Environmental Politics Edward Elgar CheltenhamSebastian, Thomas (2010) The law of permissible WTO retaliation in Bown and Pauwelyn (eds) The Law, Economics and Politics of Retaliation in WTO Dispute settlement Cambridge University Press worldwideStern, Brigitte (2006) The emergence of non-state actors in international commercial disputes through WTO appellate Body case-law in Sacerdoti, Yanovich and Bohanes (eds) The WTO at ten The Contribution of the Dispute result corpse Cambridge University Press worldwideVan den Bossche, Peter (2008). The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, UK Cambridge University PressVranes, Erich (2009) Trade and the Environment Fundamental Issues in International Law, WTO law and Legal Theory Oxford University Press Oxford3.0 StatuteEndangered Species ActGATT 1947 Articles XXII and XXIIIMarine Mammal Protection Act 1972Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes4.0 WebsitesWTO, WTO and UNEP launch a report explaining for the first time the connections between trade and climate change, 26 June 2009, Press/559. UNEP issued an identical press release on the same day, available at ww website accessed on 2nd February and available from http// DecisionsGATT United States Taxes on Automobiles, ruling not adoptive, circulated on 11 October 1994. crusade brought by EU. United States Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, son of tuna-dolphin, ruling not adopted, circulated on 16 June 1994. Case brought by EU. United States Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, the tuna-dolphin case, ruling not adopted, circulated on 3 September 1991. Case brought by Mexico, etc. Thailand Restrictions on the Importation of and Internal Taxes on Cigarettes, ruling adopted on 7 November 1990. Case brought by US. Canada Measures Affecting Exports of Unprocessed Herring and Salmon, ruling adopted on 22 March 1988. Case brought by US. United States Prohibition of Imports of Tuna and Tuna Products from Canada, ruling adopted on 22 February 1982. Case brought by Canada.WTO European Communit ies Measures affecting asbestos and asbestos-containing products. WTO case No. 135. Ruling adopted on 5 April 2001. Case brought by Canada. United States Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, the shrimp-turtle case. WTO case Nos. 58 and 61. Ruling adopted on 6 November 1998. Case brought by India, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand. Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU. Ruling adopted on 21 November 2001. Case brought by Malaysia. United States Standards for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, WTO case Nos. 2 and 4. Ruling adopted on 20 May 1996. Case brought by Venezuela and Brazil.

Friday, May 17, 2019

Education of women Essay

Daniel Defoes essay authorise The Education of Wo custody was written to emphasis the value of education for wowork force should be more than what is was. In para- graph 1 us a civilized and a Christian country Defoes target audience was for men and for those who follow the church and God. Eng- land at this time was dominantly of Christian faith and in this essay Defoe advocates more of Gods pull up stakes rather than his own to establish his own credibility and moral high ground and Defoe is able to do this by raising this issue in the minds of his Christianreadership.Although there may not be too much weight behind his view on why women necessary to be educated, with referencing God throughout the essay it becomes an effective reading with his target audience. He starts with his opinion because refers to God in the next sentence. This is a regular theme from start to finish and this captures his readers interest early on. Defoe included this rhetorical sentences in this ess ay and in paragraph 3 Defoe writes the understanding is placed in the body like a rough diamond, and must be polished, or the brilliancy of it will never appear.His analogy is that if you dont polish the diamond (women and educating) whence they will never shine. In paragraph 3 he uses the term God in his next sentence. If acquaintance and understanding had been useless additions to the 1 Yorke sex, God Almighty would never have given them capacities for he do nothing needless. He states that God made women capable of learning and that none of Gods invention is unnecessary.Defoe believes women should be educated and educating them they would simplybecome better wives and companions for men. As an example of this is in paragraph 5, he does not suggest learning practical subjects such as math and science but instead, he says that they should be taught in particular, Music and Dancing which it would be cruelty to bar the sex of, because they are their darlings. exclusively besi des this, they should be taught languages He also adds that they should read history books to be more cultured so that they can .. understand the world, and to be able to know and judge of things whenthey hear of them. Defoes argument is that women as an equal. In paragraph 7 he writes Women, in my observation, have little or no unlikeness in them, but as they are or are not distin- guished by education. Defoe summarizes in the blend paragraph with this rhetorical sentence I refer the Practice to those Happy Days (if ever they shall be) when men shall be wise enough to mend it. Defoe implies that if man can change his views on education for women, then a woman would be educated will be seen as an equal amongst men.

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Students’ Perception on the Use of Google+

Running Head victimisation Google+ 1 IIUM Students Perception on the Use of Google+ in Improving Communication Skill Siti Natrah Bt Bactiar (0918444) Kulliyyah of Human Science (Communications) foreign Islamic University Malaysia Instructor Mdm Norazah Md. Idrus English for Academic Writing Section 14 6th December 2012 victimisation Google+ 2 AbstractFor this athletic field, its purpose is to examine whether loving ne cardinalrking site such as Google+ stool really be apply effectively by students in alter their talk skill by employing quantitative investigate where a sample of 25 respondents consisting of undergraduate IIUM students from the main Gombak campus for survey were apply where respondents were given questionnaires which were distri furthered by means of electronic mail and Facebook.The questionnaires were through with(p) in order to arrange two enquiry questions in terms of what benefits stack students do from development Google+ as a delegacy to impro ve talk skills and how basin IIUM use Google+ as a flair for students to improve their communication skills and results from the study found that majority agree that Google+ arse help meliorate students communication skills and that they atomic recite 18 positive that IIUM bequeath implement this method by introducing Google+ as part of learnedness material, similar with e-learning.Thus, through this study, it clear aid seekers who want to study on the tradition and impact of affectionate networking sites especially Google+ on the exploitation of academic communication among university students in Malaysia and in any case for IIUM on shipway to complicate the learning environment by tackling on new ways that grass aid the learning butt against by integrating education and accessible networking sites resulting in an active voice and fun way of learning mingled with reviewer and students. victimisation Google+ 3 IIUM Students Perception on the Use of Google+ in Improving Communication Skill after(prenominal) the introduction of Internet in 1960s (Brown, 2008, p. 30), the world saw a transformation in how societies interact with each other and with the birth of Facebook in 2006 (pp. 32), it has changed how people in the 21st century would communicate with each other as more and more people atomic human body 18 communicating and developing their relationship online.Majority of youths now spend their time communicating with their friends in accessible networking sites (SNS) as comp ard to other online communication tools such as emails, discussion forum and chat rooms as it enables the users to gain instant feedback with its realtime message capabilities and a higher(prenominal) respond rates, allowing them to improve their communication between each other (Goddard & Geesin, 2011, p. 51).Even though most youths especially students now are communicating online with their friends and families daily through various channels of communicat ion such as individualized computers, laptops, Smart phones, mobile phones and so on, it does not indicate that their communication skills are improving. Instead, many of them showed a deprivation of confidence and persuasiveness during come apart presentation and in populace speaking as most shows signs of jitteriness and lack of understanding and knowledge about their topic especially when they gravel to present it in preceding of their class.Moreover, some of them displayed poor team-player image by not participating actively in grouping discussion and freeriding other group members in insideng their assignment. For this research, the purpose of this study is to examine whether well-disposed networking site such as Google+ screw really be use effectively by students in improving their communication skill. Thus, two accusives are generated from this, which are to examine how students devote their skills, time and volitioningness in using their genial networking site U sing Google+ 4 Google+) in improving their communication skills especially in a team or group based discussion in order to prepare them for the working world and to examine factors affecting their use, which leads to the development of two research questions (RQ) 1. What benefits can students gain from using Google+ as a way to improve communication skills? 2. How can IIUM implement Google+ as a way for students to improve their communication skills? According to Watson, Besmer and Lipford (2012), Google+ is a tender networking site, similar to Facebook, MySpace and Twitter with an added feature for group-based sharing facilities (+Circles). neighborly Networking Sites (SNS) helps users to create an online visibleness that can be prognosised by the public which allows interactive communication between the user and his or her circle of friends. As mentioned by Boyd and Ellison (2007) (as cited in Greenhow & Robelia, 2009) An online hearty network site (SNS) is a web-based service that allows individuals to (1) construct a public or semipublic profile indoors a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system (p. ). Mean spot, communication is defined as the mode of sending or receiving information, such as telephone lines or computers (Oxford English Dictionary, 2007). However, in mass communication studies, Communication refers to your ability to share beliefs, values, ideas and feelings where it is seen as a dynamic process in which people act to share their internal states with other people through the use of symbols (Samovar, Porter, & McDaniel, 2010, pp. 14, 21).Thus, an effective communication consists of the ability to find a message that is understood by the audience verbally and non-verbally such Using Google+ 5 as through gestures, facial expressions and postures and that which requires a two-way communication. As more and more youths are connected to their digital devices, their network relationships bring forth also expanded from offline or face to face relationship to online relationship. Thus, many researches have been done to study on the use and impact of social networking sites (SNS) on users social development.In addition, with the majority of social networking sites (e. g. Facebook ) users are adolescents and young adults who are still in high school and college, studies have found that social networking sites can influence the academic and social development of the students (Naeema, 2011 Ahn, 2011 Golder, Wilkinson, & Huberman, n. d. ). Moreover, Lampe, Ellison, and Steinfeld (2007) and Subrahmanyam and Greenfield (2008) mentioned thatuphill adults use of the internet is predominately social in nature, typically with people known from offline contexts. , as cited in (Reich, Espinoza, & Subrahmanyam, 2012, p. 364). However, the studies done tend to focus on the usage of Facebook and its implication on the general academic and social development of the users. There was little studies conducted on Google+ (Watson, Besmer, & Lipford, 2012), an emerging social networking site that was introduced by Google in mid 2011 (Pascopella, 2011) which provides a more comprehensive features that are grotesque from Facebook such as +Circles that lets the user to share information that can only be known by selected group of friends.With Google+, students can gain considerable benefits as compared to Facebook with its features that can be used for group or team discussions. In addition with the lack of studies on the usage of Google+ by students, little research was done to explore on students usage and willingness in using social networking sites in improving communication skills. Using Google+ 6 MethodParticipants For this study, a sample of 25 respondents for survey were used which composed of undergraduate internationalistic Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) students from the main Gombak campus who are currently taking courses offered in the Gombak campus such as IRK, HS, KAED, ENGIN, EDU, ICT, AIKOL and ENMS. The 25 respondents were selected from students in EAW class of section 14 and those who have answered the questionnaires which was posted through Facebook.Materials Respondents were given questionnaires that were done through Google Drive (see accessory 1) consisting of 12 questions that are divided into three sections with three unconditional questions on gender, Kuliyyah and level of study of the respondents succession Section B consists of questions on having a social network account, frequency in updating their social network profile, user of Google+ and time spent connecting to social network site and Google+ which can help to answer the first objectives opus for the third section (Section C) was used to answer the second objective and two research questions, one question using eight-element questionnaire using Likert-like scale was used and three other questions on agreement for using Google+ and how IIUM can implement Google+ into their system.Procedures The questionnaire was distributed to the 20 respondents via email by providing them the link to access the questionnaire from Google Drive while the remaining five respondents were provided with the link to the questionnaire by posting the link on own Facebook profile. The purpose and objective of the research were stated clearly in the questionnaire for Using Google+ 7 respondents clarification and the questionnaire only took five minutes for respondents to complete. Data Analysis Descriptive statistics is used in analyzing the data and as the research instrument used in collecting the data was questionnaire, it will involved numbers making it easier for the data to be quantified.In descriptive statistics, frequencies such as percentages and graphs such as bar chart will be used in describing the data as it will focused on the differences such as the h ighest and lowest amount which will help in examining the frequencies of usage in social networking sites especially Google+. Google Drive provided the service of analyzing the data and describing it through graphs. In addition to Google Drive, Microsoft Excel will also be used. Using Google+ 8 Results The questions from the questionnaire (See Appendix 1) are generated in order to answer two research questions for this study which are 1) What benefits can students gain from using Google+ as a way to improve communication skills? 2) How can IIUM implement Google+ as a way for students to improve their communication skills? nd from the data that have been collected, 15 respondents (60 percent) agree that Google+ can be expert to students especially in improving communication skills while only two respondents (8 percent) strongly agree that Google+ can help improve communication skill. On the other hand, there is a balance between the number of respondents who disagree that Google+ ca n be beneficial to students in improving their communication skills with four respondents (16 percent) expressed disparity while another four respondents expressed strong disagreement, as illustrated in the figure below betoken 1 taken from Microsoft Excel Using Google+ 9 Meanwhile, pertaining to the second research question (How can IIUM implement Google+ as a way for students to improve their communication skills? ), the question If yes, how do you think it can be implemented? is used in order to identify how students perceives the method for implementation of Google+ by IIUM with answers provided for them to check (See Appendix) . The answers from the respondents are listed in the figure below- Figure 2 taken from Microsoft Excel As respondents can check off more than one answer for this question, almost half of the respondents chose introducing Google+ as part of learning material, similar with e-learning (48 percent) while introduce more team-based learning or collaborative learning through using Google+ came a soaked second with 26 percent. Meanwhile, with a minor difference of 3 percent is the answer making it compulsory for students to open a Google+ account (23 percent).In contrast, other only constitutes of 3 percent or only suss out by one respondent who stated that there is no need to use Google+. Using Google+ 10 Thus, with the findings of the data collected from respondents are illustrated from the figures above, it shows how the findings have answered the two research questions for this study. For the rest of the answers from the respondents, it can be viewed from the digest of the responses (See Appendix 2). Discussion Based on the results from the survey, it can be deduced that a majority of respondents viewed Google+ positively as being beneficial to IIUM students in improving their communication skill, especially in a team or group based discussion.This is also inline with the studies by Naeema (2011) where majority of Sultan Qaboos Un iversity (SQU) students that were asked, were willing to use social networking sites for remedy academic communication and learning with all agreed that social networking sites such as Facebook and other social networks are great form of communication that enable groups to meet and discuss matters (p. 99, 100). This shows that students in general are open to new way of learning, as evident in IIUM students willingness to use social networking sites such as Google+ in improving their communication skills. In addition, regarding on how IIUM can implement Google+ for students use in improving their communication skills, most respondents perceived that IIUM will introduce Google+ as part of learning material, akin to e-learning which can be advantageous to the student. Unlike -learning where communication mainly occur between the instructor or lecturer with their student (owner of the account) only, Google+ can offer a wide communication between the lecturer and the rest of his or her students and also students with their fellow classmates as long as they have a Google+ account. This is also similar to naeemas (2011, p. 101) viewpoint where according to her, by integrating social network Using Google+ 11 technologies into the learning environments, students will learn from each other, explore regulations from experiences where students at advanced levels can help beginners. Similarities between methodology used and the topic of research played a role in the outcome of this research.Both researches used university students who are active users of social networking sites and both employed quantitative research especially survey using questionnaire in multitude their data. In addition, the topic of research are somewhat similar with each other with Naeema doing a study on social networking as a tool for extending academic learning and communication whereas for EAW research, it tackles on IIUM students percept on the use of Google+ in improving communication skill. Using Google+ 12 Conclusion In conclusion, Google+ can be used by IIUM students in improving their communication skill as majority of respondents agreed that Google+ can help improved their communication skill and their optimism in how IIUM can implement Google+ into their curriculum.In addition, from the data collected, it has also fulfilled the objectives of this study as most of the respondents asked were active users of social networking sites and who mostly used these sites such as Google+ to keep in touch with friends and families and also for academic communication. Through this, the purpose of study which is to examine whether social networking site such as Google+ can really be used effectively by students in improving their communication skill, have been answered. Moreover, through this research, it can aid researchers who want to study on the usage and impact of social networking sites especially Google+ on the development of academic communication among university studen ts in Malaysia as some researches has been done on Google+ and its perceived usefulness in improving communication skills of students especially in Malaysia .In addition, it can help IIUM on ways to expand the learning environment by tackling on new ways that can aid the learning process by integrating education and social networking sites and widen their perspectives on social networking sites being not just to establish and strengthen social relationship only but it can also help students in academic development which results in an interactive and fun way of learning between the lecturer and students. As the study was done through using limited number of respondents in terms of sample used and the method for data collection, the study may not have a high reliability and it may not reflect the perceptions and views of all university and college students in Malaysia. Using Google+ 13Thus, collect to this limitation, this research can be improved in the future by changing the metho ds that have been used by this research such as increasing the number of respondents, changing the sample population by choosing students from all universities and colleges in Malaysia or changing the type of research by using qualitative research such as in-depth interview or focus group instead. Thus, by changing the methods used it can lead to a different results of the study. In addition, by changing the purpose and objective of the study it can also direct the researcher to collecting different data and findings, for example, instead of looking at how Google+ can be used for academic development, the researcher can try to study on the impact of Google+ on the academic achievement. Using Google+ 14 References Ahn, J. (2011).The Effects of Social Network Sites on Adolescents Social and Academic using Current Theories and Controversies. Journal of The American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(8), 1435-1445. doi10. 1002/asi. 21540 Brown, D. (2008). Chapter 2 Hist orical Perspectives on Communication Technology. In A. E. Grant, & J. H. Meadows (Eds. ), Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals (11th ed. , pp. 30-31). Oxford Focal Press. Goddard, A. , & Geesin, B. (2011). Unit four e-language 2 real-time writing social networking sites. In A. Goddard, B. Geesin, A. Beard, & A. Goddard (Eds. ), Language and Technology (1st ed. , pp. 51-52).London Routledge. Golder, S. , Wilkinson, D. , & Huberman, B. (n. d. ). Rhythms of social interaction messaging within a massive online. Palo Alto HP Labs. Greenhow, C. , & Robelia, B. (2009). Old Communication, New Literacies Social Network Sites as Social Learning Resources. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 11301161. doi10. 1111/j. 1083-6101. 2009. 01484. x Naeema, H. J. (2011). Social Networking as a Tool for Extending Academic Learnning and Communication. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2(12), 93-102. Oxford English Dictionary. (2007). e-kamus 5. 02 Professional Edition. Alaf Teras. Pascopella, A. (2011, October).Will Google+ Be the Answer for Safe Social Networking? zone Administration, p. 1. Using Google+ 15 Reich, S. M. , Espinoza, G. , & Subrahmanyam, K. (2012). Friending, IMing, and Hanging out Face-to-Face Overlap in Adolescents Online and Offline Social Networks. Developmental Psychology, 48(2), 356-368. doi10. 1037/a0026980 Samovar, L. A. , Porter, R. E. , & McDaniel, E. R. (2010). Communication Between Cultures (7th ed. ). Boston Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Watson, J. , Besmer, A. , & Lipford, H. R. (2012). +Your Circles Sharing Behavior on Google+. Symposium on Usable Privacy and guarantor (SOUPS), (pp. 1-10). Washington. Using Google+ 16 Appendix 1 Using Google+ 17 Appendix 2