Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Planning and Developing a Marketing Campaign Essay In this assignment, I will be exploring the marketing mix and all of its different factors as well as to apply this to Coca-Cola and how they are currently and may be affected by the marketing mix in the future. Product A product is anything that is capable of satisfying customer needs. There are two different offerings of this being, a physical item or of a virtual type. The product is therefore created at a specific cost and marketed at a desired price that would be deemed as acceptable for the quality of the item. Every product will follow a lifecycle, a company can increase its competitive edge. There are many different ways in which they can develop or expand upon a certain product so that it can remain relevant and up to date with the changing market especially when it reaches the decline or end of its life. Product development The process of creating or improving a product or service and managing it during all stages from design through marketing. Product development is a key part of introducing a new, appealing product to their audience, this process may involve numerous modifications to the product so that it does meet the needs and purpose of the product. There are various stages that a new or improved product or service goes through from design, through developing, testing, and marketing it. Form and Function form fit function, is used in manufacturing to describe the identifying characteristics of a part. For example, the screw is intended to hold other parts of the product together. In practice, the rule of form follows function, start the design process by first getting as much information as possible about the purpose of the piece you are creating. Using this process allows a company to understand and ensure that the product is acceptable as well as fit for its purpose. Without this process, the intentions and purpose for a product can be lost, which ideally is not a stage of which what a company would want to beat. Packaging Packaging is a very crucial part when creating and marketing a product because it is the first thing the customer sees before purchasing the product, therefore, this makes the packaging of the product to be respectable and appropriate to catch the eye of the consumer. How the product is packaged may also be what attracts the consumer to check out the product on the shelf or it could be a product that stands out from the rest online, amongst its competitors. For this reason, companies conduct extensive research on color schemes, designs and types of product packaging that is the most appealing to its intended consumer. The main function of packaging is to protect the product from damage during the process from the producer to the consumer, this process involves travel and shelf life of the product. Branding Branding a product was much easier when there were no websites, smartphones, interactive games or social media. Today, creative teams are required to seamlessly brand products across multiple media, using the same voice, design and messaging, often with different creative teams and designers creating separate brand extensions. Without a strong brand behind your product line, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s little to compel a buyer to choose you over another option. And with so many options in most markets today, branding is more important than ever. Product branding gives the items in your store an identity within the marketplace. Good branding can allow your specific products to stand out against what a competitor offers, and engender the kind of brand loyalty that pulls customers into your store. That identity is built of numerous components, including logos, design, packaging, messaging as well as names and descriptions. Coca-Cola has been around since 1892 and has developed a well-known brand all over the world. They are a company who have worked on producing a high quality, refreshing product that meets the needs of their consumers. They have developed their product minimally and have always offered the same refreshing taste. From having a simple and unique design this has meant that they can stand out amongst competitive brands such as Pepsi. In addition, the look of the product has also been similar since they started, by doing this Coca-Cola is able to provide a distinctive well-known product all over the world. Coca-Cola is the best marketing and branding company in the world, the company built began with one soda. Today it is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most valuable brands and theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve done it by integrating different components into the marketing mix. Price Ã¢â¬â is the value that is put into a product or service and is the result of a complex set of calculations, research and understanding, and risk-taking ability. A pricing strategy takes into account segments, ability to pay, market conditions, competitor actions, trade margins and input costs, amongst others. It is targeted at the defined customers and against competitors. Penetration Pricing Ã¢â¬â Penetration pricing refers to a marketing strategy used by businesses to attract customers to a new product or service. Penetration pricing is the practice of offering a low price for a new product or service during its initial offering in order to lure customers away from competitors. Penetration pricing is most commonly associated with a marketing objective of increasing market share or sales volume. In the short term, penetration pricing is likely to result in lower profits than would be the case if the price were set higher. Skimming Pricing Ã¢â¬â Price skimming is a pricing strategy in which a marketer sets a relatively high initial price for a product or service at first, then lowers the price over time. It is a temporal version of price discrimination/yield management. Competitive Pricing Ã¢â¬â Competitive pricing is setting the price of a product or service based on what the competition is charging. This pricing method is used more often by businesses selling similar products since services can vary from business to business, while the attributes of a product remain similar. This type of pricing strategy is generally used once a price for a product or service has reached a level of equilibrium, which occurs when a product has been on the market for a long time and there are many substitutes for the product. Cost plus Pricing Ã¢â¬â Cost-plus pricing, also called markup pricing or markup pricing is the practice by a company of determining the cost of their product to them and then adding a percentage on top of that price to determine the selling price to the customer. Cost-plus pricing is a very simple cost-based pricing strategy for setting the prices of goods and services. The amount of money charged for a product or service, or the sum of the values that Consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or services. As price gives us the profit so this P is very important for a business price of the product should be that which gives maximum benefit to the company and which gives maximum satisfaction to the customer. For Coca-Cola, there are many factors that they kept in mind while determining the pricing strategy. Firstly, the price should be set according to the product demand of public because it is of what which gives the company maximum revenue. Price should also not be too low or too high then the price competitor is charging from otherwise nobody will buy their product. Another factor is that price must be keeping the view of your target market. The price of Coca-Cola, despite being the market leader is the same as that of its competitors, sometimes, Pepsi places its customers into some psychological pricing strategies by reducing a high priced bottle and consumers think that they save a lot of money from this. Place Ã¢â¬â In the marketing mix, the process of moving products from the producer to the intended user is called the place. In other words, it is how your product is bought and where it is bought. This movement could be through a combination of intermediaries such as distributors, wholesalers, and retailers. In addition, a newer method is the internet which itself is a marketplace now. Through the use of the right place, a company can increase sales and maintain these over a longer period of time. In turn, this would mean a greater share of the market and increased revenues and profits. Correct placement is a vital activity that is focused on reaching the right target audience at the right time. Distribution Channels Ã¢â¬â Channels are broken into direct and indirect forms, with a \direct\ channel allowing the consumer to buy the good from the manufacturer, and a \indirect\ channel allowing the consumer to buy the good from a wholesaler or retailer. A distribution channel is a chain of businesses or intermediaries through which a good or service passes until it reaches the end consumer. It can include wholesalers, retailers, distributors and even the internet itself. Retailers Ã¢â¬â A retailer is a person or business that sells goods to the public in relatively small quantities for use or consumption rather than for resale. Retail distribution is the most traditional form of the distribution channel. The common model includes the manufacturer using an intermediary such as a wholesaler or distributor to deliver products directly to retailers, then ultimately to the consumer.Ã Wholesalers Ã¢â¬â Manufacturers may also employ wholesale operations that purchase products from manufacturers at a deeply discounted price. The wholesaler often uses a distributor or other smaller wholesaler as an intermediary to deliver products in bulk to retailers, or it may offer products directly to retailers or consumers. The scope of the manufacturer relationship with the wholesaler can have varying effects on product delivery time and price. Coca-Cola is a global business that operates on a local scale, in every community where we do business. We are able to create global reach with local focus because of the strength of the Coca-Cola system, which comprises our Company and our nearly 250 bottling partners worldwide. The firms distribution system is one of the most well planned and executed compared to all other drinks of the same category. It has such an impact on consumers and is so successful that even wholesalers and distributors need the product for their businessÃ¢â¬â¢ success. CokeÃ¢â¬â¢s position on consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind makes it essential to retailers and wholesalers. They have achieved their goal due to this high visibility, and to the availability of their products all over the world, even remote places. Promotion Ã¢â¬â There is much more to promotion than advertising. Businesses use various methods to gain publicity. Promotion refers to the methods used by a business to make customers aware of its product. Advertising is just one of the means a business can use to create publicity. For example, product promotion performed by a typical business might take the form of advertising the product in question via print or Internet ads, direct mail or e-mail letters, trade shows, telephone and personal sales calls, TV and radio ads, billboards, posters and flyers. Public relations Ã¢â¬â Public relations is the way organizations, companies and individuals communicate with the public and media. A PR specialist communicates with the target audience directly or indirectly through media with an aim to create and maintain a positive image and create a strong relationship with the audience. Examples include press releases, newsletters, public appearances, etc. as well as utilization of the World Wide Web. Sponsorship Ã¢â¬â advertising that seeks to establish a deeper association and integration between an advertiser and a publisher, often involving coordinated beyond-the-banner placements. Examples of sponsorships vary widely, as the whole point is to establish a unique advertising opportunity than afforded by typical rotating advertisements. They may include several fixed ad placements, advertorials, co-branded content sections, or anything the advertiser and publisher can agree on. Social and or other Media Ã¢â¬â The emergence of Internet-based social media has made it possible for one person to communicate with hundreds or even thousands of other people about products and the companies that provide them. The impact of consumer-to-consumer communications has been greatly magnified in the marketplace. The first role of social media is reliable with the use of traditional integrated marketing Communication tools. That is, companies can use social media to talk to their customers through such platforms as blogs, as well as Facebook groups. These media may either be the company- sponsored or sponsored by other individuals or organizations. The second promotion-related role of social media is unique: customers can use it to communicate with one another. Guerrilla marketing Ã¢â¬â The goal of guerrilla marketing was to use unconventional tactics to advertise on a small budget. It is an advertisement strategy concept designed for businesses to promote their products or services in an unconventional way with little budget to spend. This involves high energy and imagination focusing on grasping the attention of the public in more personal and memorable level. The term guerrilla marketing was inspired by guerrilla warfare which is a form of irregular warfare and relates to the small tactic strategies used by armed civilians. Many of these tactics include ambushes, sabotage, raids and elements of surprise. Much like guerrilla warfare, guerrilla marketing uses the same sort of tactics in the marketing industry. Personal selling Ã¢â¬â Personal selling is the process of communicating with a potential buyer face-to-face with the purpose of selling a product or service. Personal selling is one part of a company\s promotion mix, along with advertising, sales promotion, and public relations. It is a strategy that salespeople use to convince customers to purchase a product. The salesperson uses a personalized approach, tailored to meet the individual needs of the customer, to demonstrate the ways that the product will benefit the company. Product placement Ã¢â¬â An advertising technique used by companies to subtly promote their products through a non-traditional advertising technique, usually through appearances in film, television, or other media. Product placements are often initiated through an agreement between a product manufacturer and the media company in which the media company receives an economic benefit. A company will often pay a fee to have their product used, displayed, or significantly featured in a movie or show. For example, Coca-Cola could pay a given fee to have the title character drinking a Coke, instead of a Pepsi beverage. Digital Marketing Ã¢â¬â The promotion of products or brands via one or more forms of electronic media. For example, advertising mediums that might be used as part of the digital marketing strategy of a business could include promotional efforts made via the Internet, social media, mobile phones and electronic billboards, as well as via digital and television and radio channels. Corporate image Ã¢â¬â Similar to a firm\s reputation or goodwill, it is the public perception of the firm rather than a reflection of its actual state or position. Unlike corporate identity, it is fluid and can change overnight from positive to negative to neutral. Large firms use various corporate advertising techniques to enhance their image in order to improve their desirability as a supplier, employer, customer or the borrower.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
History, Science and Technology, Justice, and Environmental Issues of Sweden During the seventh and eighth centuries, the Swedes were merchant seamen well known for their trade. In the ninth century, Nordic Vikings raided and ravaged the European Continent as far as the Black and Caspian Seas. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden slowly became a united Christian kingdom that later included Finland. Queen Margaret of Denmark united all the Nordic lands in the "Kalmar Union" in 1397. Frequent tension within the countries and within the union gradually led to open conflict between the Swedes and the Danes in the 15th century. The union's final disintegration in the early 16th century resulted in a long-lived rivalry between Norway and Denmark on one side and Sweden and Finland on the other. During and after World War I, in which Sweden remained neutral, the nation benefited from the worldwide demand for Swedish steel, ball bearings, wood pulp, and matches. Postwar achievement provided the basis for the social welfare policies characteristic of modern Sweden. Sweden followed a policy of armed impartiality during World War II and currently remains independent. Sweden became a member of the European Union in 1995. Many of SwedenÃ¢â¬â¢s science and technology activities are carried out by the Embassy of SwedenÃ¢â¬â¢s Science and Technology office. The main mission of the Science and Technology Office is to help cooperation in research and development and other exchange of knowledge between Sweden and Japan. This is done by telling decision-makers in Sweden about developments in Japan, and by arranging study visits, workshops and other events. The office preserves widespread contact networks in Sweden and Japan, mainly with key persons and organizations involved in research and innovation in government, academia, and industry. Most of the activities of the Science and Technology Office are carried out within the framework of Ã¢â¬Å"programsÃ¢â¬ operated in close partnership with, and financed by, Swedish government agencies and other organizations with responsibilities in the particular area covered by a program. Current programs cover the following areas: (1) Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), (2) Life Sciences and Bio-industry, (3) Sustainable Development, and (4) Overall Development of Japanese Science and Technology Policy and Innovation System. Sweden is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. According to the Swedish Constitution, all public power derives from the people. Sweden's head of state, the King, has only ceremonial functions. The top branch of the national government is the Parliament, which has 349 members in one chamber.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Outline some of the cardinal wellness and safety challenges that is faced by a excavation company you are familiar with. The industry has experienced both high effect low frequence events ( catastrophes such as Moura and Gretley ) every bit good as low frequence high events ( such as faux pass, strains and falls ) contribute to the industry Ã¢â¬Ës high lost clip hurt rate ( LTIR ) . It has besides had its portion of occupational diseases. Historically, pneumonocosis ( lung disease caused by inspiration of mineral dust ) , asbestosis and mesothelioma have been cardinal countries of concern. Noise, quiver and weariness are issues of important wellness concerns. The direction and control of major jeopardies associated with structural prostrations, fires and detonations are cardinal safety issues of the twenty-four hours.Moura:During the past 40 old ages at that place have been three mining catastrophes in the Moura territory at a cost of 36 lives. The first occurred at Kianga Mine on 20 September 1975. Thirteen mineworkers died from an detonation which was found to hold been initiated by self-generated burning. The mine was sealed and the organic structures of the work forces were ne'er recovered. The 2nd occurred on 16 July 1986 at Moura No 4 Mine when 12 mineworkers died from an detonation idea to hold been initiated by one of two possible beginnings, viz. frictional ignition or a flame safety lamp. The organic structures of the mineworkers, in this instance, were recovered. The tierce of the catastrophes occurred on 7 August 1994 at Moura No 2 Mine. On this juncture eleven mineworkers died as a consequence of an detonation. The mine was sealed and, at this clip, the organic structures have non been recovered. What is the model of the mine safety statute law in your state/country? Since Australia is a federation of provinces, each province sets out its ain Torahs, which include its ain regulative criterions for occupational wellness and safety. At get downing, each province was separate and used the old wellness codifications ( i.e. , statute law ) and criterions from the British system. This system relied to a great extent upon really specific ( i.e. , Numberss based ) system which was easy to implement and simple to understand. However jobs ensured as clip and engineering progressed which led to the wellness and safety reform that began in 1972. The Current Framework for Mine Safety in Australia in 3 ways: Regulations under a general OHS Act ( VIC/SA/TAS/NT ) In separate Mine Safety Acts and Regulations ( WA/QLD ) In separate mine Safety Act and Regulations Subordinate to a general OHS Act ( NSW ) Since Victoria is my province, the undermentioned legalization will be used under 3 chief classs given as below. Dangerous Goods Act Environment Protection ACT Occupational Health and Safety Regulations As per Occupational Health and Safety Regulations: Occupational Health and Safety Act 2004. Act No. 107/2004: Enabling act. Sets out the cardinal rules, responsibilities and rights in relation to occupational wellness and safety ( OHS ) . Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007, Statutory Rule No. 54/2007: Specifies the manner in which a responsibility imposed by the OHS Act must be performed, or prescribe procedural or administrative affairs to back up the OHS Act ( eg requiring licenses for specific activities, the maintaining of records or giving notice ) . WorkSafe Positions: Are guidelines made under subdivision 12 of the OHS Act that province how WorkSafe will use the OHS Act or Regulations or exert discretion under a proviso of the OHS Act or Regulations. WorkSafe Positions are intended to supply certainty to duty holders and other affected parties As per Environment Protection ACT: Version No. 171, Environment Protection Act 1970, No. 8056 of 1970, Version integrating amendments as at 1 January 2010. This sets out the cardinal rules, responsibilities and rights in relation to Environment Protection Act. As per Dangerous Goods Act: This sets out the cardinal rules, responsibilities and rights in relation to Dangerous Goods Act. But here separately they all made for single classs as mentioned. Version No. 081 Dangerous Goods Act 1985 No. 10189 of 1985 Version integrating amendments as at 1 January 2010 Version No. 003 Dangerous Goods ( HCDG ) Regulations 2005 S.R. No. 96/2005 Version as at 14 March 2008 Version No. 005 Dangerous Goods ( Storage and Handling ) Regulations 2000 S.R. No. 127/2000 Version integrating amendments as at 1 January 2009 Version No. 001 Dangerous Goods ( Transport by Road or Rail ) Regulations 2008 S.R. No. 166/2008 Version as at 1 January 2009 Version No. 013 Dangerous Goods ( Explosives ) Regulations 2000 S.R. No. 61/2000 Version integrating amendments as at 1 January 2009 Robens suggested two cardinal issues were of import in accomplishing high criterions of safety. What are these two key issue? Where in the Act ( or ordinance ) are these two issues addressed in the mine safety statute law of your state/country? In 1972, the British Robens study sought to modify the old codifications of pattern utilizing two base principals. The first rule recognised the demand to unite all the difference OHS Torahs under one system. It was proposed that this would be accomplished by making Ã¢â¬Å" general responsibilities Ã¢â¬ into one opinion ( Robens Report, para 41 ) . The 2nd rule observed that a ego ordinance theoretical account be implemented where workers and decision makers Ã¢â¬Ëcome together Ã¢â¬Ë in order addition the criterions of wellness and safety ( Robens Report, para 41 ) . The Federal Government in 1985 passed statute law to organize the so National Occupational Health and Safety Commission ( NOHSC ) ; though, because Australia is a federation, each state/territory has to sign federal statute law in order to for the committee ( NOHSC ) to be apart of the Commonwealth and hence have any legal evidences. Each province reformed OHS Torahs, based on the Robens theoretical account and beyond. In fact, the OHS operates in a three manner system. The first is the general responsibilities which cover all employees irrespective of occupation position ( Internet Explorer, contracted or non ) and require the employee as practically possible to guarantee a safe working environment. The 2nd are the Ã¢â¬Å" commissariats in ordinances Ã¢â¬ are compulsory Torahs that are specific to each province. Finally, codifications of pattern are used as counsel which set the criterions for the general responsibility of attention. These aid in puting criterions the responsibility holder is required to place the jeopardies and buttocks and control hazards and hence helps Robens 2nd rule nevertheless there remains some critical spreads. What is the chief end of industrial hygiene? List the four key processes that play a function in accomplishing this end. Main end of Industrial hygiene is risk decrease and/or hazard riddance wherever possible. Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control of workplace environmental jeopardies Specify the undermentioned footings Hazard Hazard Hazard direction Hazard Appraisal Probability Frequency Badness Dose TLV-TWA TLV-STEL Hazard: A jeopardy is any Ã¢â¬Ëthing Ã¢â¬Ë that may do injury or hurt to a individual or belongings. Besides this is the potency of any agent or substances to do injury, normally ill-health or disease. Hazard: The hazard tells how likely an accident ( An accident is any unexpected or unintended event that may do injury or hurt to a individual or belongings ) will do injury or hurt to a individual or belongings. Hazard is a map of the type of jeopardy times the sum of exposure ( Risk = Hazard x Exposure ) Hazards direction: The procedure of ordaining general responsibilities of attention in order to extinguish, replacement, or cut down the likeliness of an accident ( i.e. hazard ) through technology or administrative solutions, or through using personal protection equipment ( PPE ) . Hazard Appraisal: Hazard Assessment is the procedure by which a particular hazard is quantified or qualified in order to understand how to pull off a specific jeopardy. It is based upon the consequence that a specific jeopardy may hold, the magnitude of the jeopardy ( I, e, how terrible it may be ) , and the continuance that the jeopardy may impact a individual or belongings. The hazard appraisal helps determine how a jeopardy may be managed and how a hazard may be controlled. Probability: the likeliness for an event to happen. One of the factors that serves as the dependent variable for hazard ( I.e. Risk=Probability * Severity ) or It is a manner of showing cognition or belief that an event will happen or has occurred. In mathematics the construct has been given an exact significance in chance theory, that is used extensively in such countries of survey as mathematics, statistics, finance, gaming, scientific discipline, and doctrine to pull decisions about the likeliness of possible events and the implicit in mechanics of complex systems. Frequency: Frequency is the rate at which a individual may come into contact with a jeopardy over a defined length of clip. Or The figure of times that a periodic map repeats the same sequence of values during a unit fluctuation of the independent variable Badness: Badness is the magnitude, or strength, with which a risky substance is exposed to a individual. It is the dimension for sorting earnestness for Technical support issues. Dose: Is the sum of the jeopardy which we are exposed. It is defined by the concentration of the risky substance times the length of clip a individual is exposed. Dose is the construct of dosage is paramount for occupational hygiene and hazard direction. Dose refers to the sum of a substance to which we are exposed, and is a combination of the concentration of exposure and continuance of exposure. Dose= concentration*duration of exposure TLV-TWA: TLV values by and large refer to a national exposure criterion for a jeopardy ( i.e. chemical, dust, or radiation ) . It is a agency of quantifying the maximal concentrations of a peculiar substance in an country over a specified length of clip, and so using it as a criterion for wellness and safety inspectors and responsibility bearers to utilize as a manner of measuring hazard. TWA is an acronym for clip leaden norm. In this instance, the continuance of contaminant exposure is expressed over an eight hr working twenty-four hours and a five twenty-four hours working hebdomad. In this manner, this exposure criterion incorporates the upper limit and minimal exposure rates a individual experiences during a regular on the job twenty-four hours. The accent of an exposure free clip is implicitly involved ( as would be the instance for noise ) so that certain organic structure thresholds are non passed. TLV-STEL: STEL is an acronym for short term exposure bound. For some substances, a short term exposure criterion is needed since ague and chronic wellness affects may ensue. Alternatively of an eight hr twenty-four hours, this exposure criterion is step over no more than 15 proceedingss. What are the chief airborne contaminants/pollutants that can do health-related jobs at mine sites? The Dust and particulates ( arsenic, lead, quicksilver and etc ) ; The Toxic gases ( C monoxide, sulfur dioxide and etc ) ; The Carcinogens ( asbestos, aromatic hydrocarbons, and etc ) ; The Flammable gases ( methane and C dioxide and etc ) ; The Radiation toxicant ( radon, U, Th and etc ) ; The Mixture of viruses and bacteriums. For a peculiar legal legal power ( state/country ) what are the legal demands for the concentration of the followers in the general organic structure of airing air flow ( maximal or lower limit ) ? Harmonizing to the HSIS Oxygen Pure O: no limitations Oxygen diflouride: TWA=.05 ppm Methane ( as a gas ) Pure methane: TWA=0, STEL=0 Bromomethane: 5ppm STEL=0 Carbon dioxide In coal mines: TWA= 12,500 ppm STEL= 30000 ppm Regular: TWA= 5000 ppm STEL= 30,000 ppm Carbon monoxide: TWA= 30 ppm STEL=0 Hydrogen sulfide: TWA= 10 ppm STEL= 15ppm Respirable dust ( no silicon oxide ) Coal Dust: TWA = 3 mg/ M3 STEL=0 Soapstone: TWA = 3 mg/ M3 STEL=0 Vanadium: TWA = 0.05 mg/ M3 STEL=0 Graphite: TWA = 3 mg/ M3 STEL=0 Respirable dust ( with silicon oxide ) : TWA= 2 mg/m3 Oxides of Nitrogen: Nitrogen Triflouride: TWA= 10 ppm STEL=0 Azotic Oxide: TWA= 25 ppm STEL=0 Azotic Oxide: TWA=25 ppm STEL=0 Nitrogen dioxide: TWA= 3ppm STEL=0 Nitrogen tetroxide: TWA= 0 STEL=0 Define Dust, list and briefly describe the general preventive steps, which can be used to command or forestall exposure to high dust exposures. Dust caused by the mechanical decomposition of stuff can be defined as a aggregation of solid atoms which: Are dispersed in a gaseous medium ( normally air ) Are able to stay suspended in the air for a comparatively long clip Have a high surface country to volume ratio. So briefly, over the full scope of airborne stuffs, dust by and large has the largest atom size although it can exhibit a broad particulate scope. In general, dust can be defined an merger of assorted particulates ( solid affair ) that can divide and stay in suspension in air. Dust is by and large caused by mechanical weathering through, in the instance of mines, the usage of really big machines ( drills and crushers ) and blasts. Dust can either present an immediate jeopardy ( I, e, oculus annoyance ) or long term wellness effects ( radioactive atoms that stick to respirable dust which are later inhaled ) . Whether the effects are long term or short term, there are a figure of ways that duty callings can command or even extinguish dust. Preventive steps ( Elimination ) : This is the best manner among all. This includes irrigating to cut down dust formation when film editing and boring ; guaranting that cutting equipment is crisp, and utilizing oils to transport mine cuts to an enclosed country. Under these conditions, Ã¢â¬Å" the agencies of control Ã¢â¬ is through riddance. A concluding piece of equipment is a unsighted hole bore bit which traps the dust generated through an enclosure. Ventilation ( Engineering ) : This is an technology agencies of control dust through a proper airing system. Here the air must be able to be strong plenty to pick up the heavy dust atoms to cut down the sum of dust concentrating in the air or on the land. Dust extraction and filtration systems that pump in the Ã¢â¬Ëdusty Ã¢â¬Ë air, filter out the atoms and so throw out Ã¢â¬Ëcleaner Ã¢â¬Ë air. Removal of employees ( Administrative ) : This is an administrative attack where the employees are fundamentally removed from the jeopardy thereby extinguishing exposure. This is frequently non really practical, particularly in medium/small operations, or in rural operations where all employees are needed, or working rotary motion is non an option. Use of inhalator ( PPE ) : This is the least manner control nevertheless we have no other option. Here a worker uses a inhalator in order to filtrate out the dust, thereby understating hazard by cut downing exposure. However, many inhalators can be excessively heavy or cumbrous to cover with, particularly belowground. Discuss how methane is generated in mines. What are the cardinal hazards associated with methane, and how can the hazards be managed? Methane coevals in mines: This is produced by bacterial and chemical action on organic stuff and is evolved during both the formation of coal and crude oil. One of the most common strata gases. It is non toxic but is unsafe as it can organize an explosive mixture with air. A methane/air mixture normally called firedamp. Methane is normally associated with coal mines but it is besides normally found in other mines which are over or underlain by carbonous formations. Methane is retained within breaks, nothingnesss and pores within stone either as a tight gas or adsorbed on mineral surfaces. When mining disturbs the stone the gas force per unit area gradient set up between the reservoir of methane and the airing system induces flow of methane along natural or excavation induced breaks towards the gap. Key Hazard: Methane has no smell, but it is frequently accompanied by hints of heavier hydrocarbons in the paraffin series, which have a characteristic oily odor. The denseness of methane is a small over half that of air. This gives rise to the danger of methane layering in pools along the roof of belowground gaps. The perkiness of methane can besides do jobs in inclined workings. Methane Burnss in air with a pale blue fire. The explosible scope for methane in air is by and large quoted as 5-15 % with maximal explosibility at 9.8 % . The lower bound remains reasonably changeless, the upper bound reduces as the O content of air falls. To track the flammability of methane air mixtures a coward diagram as shown in figure 2 can be used. With relation to calculate 1: coward Figure 1: The coward diagram for methane in air. In zone A the mixture is non flammable but is likely to go so if farther methane is added. In zone B the mixture is explosive and has a lower limit nose value at 12.2 % O Zones C and D illustrate mixtures that may be in certain countries. Methane beds have two chief jeopardies associated with them: Layers extend the zones within which ignitions can happen When an ignition occurs the methane bed acts as an effectual fuse along which the fire can propagate, sometimes taking to much larger accretions in roof pits or in the mariner. Methane and Carbon dioxide ( mixtures of the two gases ) if mixed with N will do the dangers atmosphere. Because this associated with gas effusions are: Suffocation of mineworkers by gas and dust. Compressed air line of lifes may be maintained on or shut to faces that are prone to effusions. The force of the effusion may damage equipment, doing triping that may light the extremely flammable gas/dust mixture. The sudden enlargement of a big volume of gas can interrupt the airing system of the mine. To command and Manage: To command and pull off the hazard of Methane, foremost of all demand to cognize the beginnings and nature of methane, and how the methane is let go ofing and migrating. And so apprehension of hazards can easy take to larn of the methane hazard direction. The major systems as follows, In its of course happening province in a coal seam, firedamp does non represent an explosive hazard. However, where firedamp released from next seams meets Ã¢â¬Å" fresh-air Ã¢â¬ in the goaf, the firedamp is diluted and explosive mixtures ( around 5 % to 15 % methane in air ) are formed. Effective firedamp control is indispensable for safe working and involves supplying either: Face-End Ventilation and Gas Control: good designed Ventilation flow avoid the hazard of methane gas. Firedamp Drainage on Retreat Longwalls: Firedamp gaining control efficiencies on longwall faces typically lie between 60 % and 80 % of the entire gas on progressing faces and from 30 % to 60 % of the entire gas on retreat faces. Options and Addendums to Firedamp Drain: There are airing options applicable to some retreat longwall coalfaces which can rid of the demand for dearly-won firedamp drainage. Such methods ( eg. hemophiliac roads and sewer gate systems ) are aimed at deviating gas off from working coalfaces along paths separate from those used to serve the face. Goaf Flushing: Goaf flushing has been used for temporarily betterment of firedamp concentrations in a territory return but it is non a recommended gas control solution. The method is by and large applied to a fully-developed goaf ( Internet Explorer. where sufficient goaf has been created to organize a significant gas reservoir ) . The airing force per unit area across a territory is reduced, after work forces have been withdrawn, leting high gas concentration gas to migrate frontward into the return airway. Transport activities in the chief return may hold to be suspended. Finally, the equilibrium between gas flow into the waste and gas flow into the return is restored, the gas concentration in the territory return being at a higher concentration than earlier due to the reduced air measure. On reconstructing the original air flow, the gas is forced into the goaf, off from the face, therefore cut downing the emanation into the return until equilibrium conditions are one time once mor e obtained. This attack is non advised due to the uncontrolled release of elevated firedamp concentrations into air passages and across electrical equipment. Methane Drain: To bring forth gaseous fuel and/or to cut down methane emanations in to airing system its been used. Methane that is drained demands to be transported safely to the point of bringing, the substructure that is required to accomplish this consists of the followers: Pipe ranges, Proctors, Safety devices, Controls, Extractor pumps Other than all above mentioned, in single states they are following up regulations and ordinances to command and pull off the hazard of Methane. Here is an illustration UK statute law provinces, Electrical power must be switched off when the general organic structure concentration of methane exceeds 1.25 % . If methane concentration exceeds 2 % forces other than those associated with bettering the airing in the country should go forth the country. Discuss the beginnings and hazards associated with arsenic, quicksilver and nitriles. How can the hazards be managed? quicksilver Beginnings: Natural beginnings: Vents Volatilization from oceans Erosion of natural sedimentations Human Activities: Estimated to be 1/3-2/3 of the entire quicksilver released into the environment. Beginnings include: Stack losingss from cinnabar roasting The working and smelting of metals Coal fired power workss Discharges from mines, refineries and mills Combustion of coal and municipal wastes, industrial wastes and boilers Medical waste incinerators Pesticides Overflow from landfills/croplands quicksilver Hazards: Continuity: Can alter signifier, Can non be destroyed Solubility: Cinnabar ( HgS ) is indissoluble ( and resists enduring ) ; Liquid Hg is somewhat soluble in H2O. Bioaccumulation: Hg methylation signifiers CH3Hg+ which is easy absorbed by beings and biomagnifies from the underside to the top of the nutrient concatenation Bioaccumulates ( dressed ores ) in musculus and tissue of fish and other wildlife CH3Hg+ by and large increases by a factor of 10 or less with each measure up the nutrient concatenation Arsenic Beginnings: Arsenopyrite ( FeAsS ) is the most common arsenic mineral in ores and is besides a by-product associated with Cu, gold, Ag, and lead/zinc excavation. Arsenic trioxide ( Fe2As3 ) is present in flue gases from Cu ore roasting coal-burning power workss and incinerators besides may let go of As into ambiance. Water: mean concentration is 1 ppb, but can be & gt ; 1,000 ppb in mining countries ; As+5 most prevailing ; many compounds dissolve in H2O. Arsenic Hazards: Arsenic is a human carcinogen In worlds the primary mark variety meats are the tegument and vascular system birds, animate beings, workss, and freshwater fish can go contaminated Toxicity in H2O is determined by H2O temperature, pH, organic content, phosphate concentration, suspended dirts, presence of oxidizers, and speciation Nitriles Beginnings: Can leach from landfills and cyanide-containing route salts every bit good as to the ambiance from auto fumes ( hydrogen nitrile gas Ã¢â¬â HCN ) . Some nutrients ( Prunus dulciss and lima beans ) contain nitriles of course It can be produced by some bacteriums, Fungis, and algae Spills: Cyanide and other heavy metal pollutants overflowed a dike at Baia Mare, Romania, polluting 250 stat mis of rivers, and killing 1000000s of fish Most persistent in groundwater & A ; at higher pH Nitriles Hazards Oral lethal dosage of KCN for an grownup is 200 milligram Airborne concentrations of 270 ppm is fatal Long term exposure to lower degrees consequences in bosom strivings, take a breathing troubles, purging, blood alterations, concerns and thyroid secretory organ expansion CN does non bio-accumulate in fish Cyanide hazard Control Methods: Production: Encourage responsible nitrile fabrication by buying from makers who operate in a safe and environmentally protective mode. Transportation system: Protect communities and the environment during cyanide conveyance. Managing and Storage: Protect workers and the environment during nitrile handling and storage. Operationss: Manage cyanide procedure solutions and waste watercourses to protect human wellness and the environment. Decommissioning: Protect communities and the environment from nitrile through development and execution of decommissioning programs for nitrile installations. Worker Safety: Protect workers Ã¢â¬Ë wellness and safety from exposure to cyanide Emergency Response: Protect communities and the environment through the development of exigency response schemes and capablenesss. Training: Train workers and exigency response forces to pull off nitrile in a safe and environmentally protective mode. Daily review of leach residue storage pools and shadowings bringing grapevines ; Incident coverage and a system of exigency processs ; Systems for informations recording, rating, reading and coverage ; Procedure technician preparation and consciousness of possible nitrile related jobs, including personal safety and impacts on the environing natural environment ; systematic records direction and certification of carnal mortalities ; Integrating cyanide direction processs into the site Environmental Management Plan which is presently being updated. Arsenic and quicksilver hazard control methods: The above mentioned methods are suited to follow Arsenic and quicksilver every bit good. However in practical universe, it depends upon the harmness, will change to importances of handling. Specify the intent of airing in belowground mines. What types of airings systems are common? The intent for airing in mines is to thin assorted signifiers of gases. These gases could be either a chemical jeopardy ( as in carbon-monoxide and dust ) or explosive physical jeopardies such as methane accretion along the roofs of mine shafts. Ventilation systems frequently come in the signifier of, fans which control air flow arrests and seals will seal escapes in peculiar to older mines Doors and air locks Regulators which is a door with an appropriate transition to keep air force per unit area gradients Aircrossings which allow suction and blowing airing systems to easy by base on balls one another and non let for cross taint Electrical power is normally employed in mines, what work patterns would you specify for the care of electrical equipment? Always to be Maintained, reviewed and modified mine power supply systems. Make certain Consistently inspect machineraries and carry out trials for mistakes and jeopardies Make certain ever the electrical equipment is decently viewed, so that arrange some visible radiations near electrical equipment in belowground mines to guarantee to be seeable. Make certain while Create processs to guarantee noise and electrical jeopardies ; over electromotive forces, current ordinance, noise degree decreases etc. , are maintained to allow legislative criterions. Without excessively much emphasis, seek to supply machinery that can be moved easy that are besides within legislative demands and can provide equal electricity Create an alternate power supply beginning in instance of machinery dislocation which allows to make care activities. For the speedy designation, install proper mine overseas telegrams with appropriate coloring materials coding system. And following safety regulations and ordinances besides makes the good work patterns for the care of electrical equipment. Failure to exert cautiousness may ensue in hurt, so cautiousness must be used when runing or mending electrical equipment When executing electrical work, ever use the proper protective equipment, such as: safety spectacless, protective baseball mitts, and a decently rated metre. State ordinances, Australian Standards and company policies are designed to guard against electrical jeopardies in the excavation industry. So following up those are really indispensable Wet conditions may eat metal electrical constituents and do their failure. Falling stone may damage an electrical overseas telegram or constituent. So need to avoid those sort of unsafe conditions before put ining at specific topographic points or demand to take attention to avoid those jobs. Exercise cautiousness to be used to utilize proper protective equipment when working with batteries. Because batteries could detonate and do hurt or could light and do fires. All have to be cognizant and particularly all electrician decently trained to Be watchful and knowing of the jeopardies of electricity. Make certain ever maintaining attitude tono electrical work can be performed until the electrical circuit is knocked, locked, and tagged. Always make certain the frame land is decently connected. No electrical work shall be performed except by a qualified individual. Circuit surfs and gulfs shall be marked for designation. Circuit interrupting devices or proper fuses, shall be installed to protect against short circuit and overloads. Unpluging devices shall be locked and tagged out. All electrical equipment shall be examined, tested, decently maintained, and consequences recorded as required Your mine employs grapevines to convey the followers: Compressed air Service H2O Methane Run of mine drainage H2O How would you guarantee that each grapevine can be readily identified by a speedy ocular review? Coloring the pipes with different sort of colorss may give solution to this instance. Examples: Blue coloring material for service H2O Red coloring material for Compressed air Green coloring material for Methane Yellow coloring material for mine drainage H2O This manner each pipe is easy visualised in the mine. A mark that demarcates the coloring material coding system will besides be necessary to clear up the coloring material cryptography system. Distinguish, with the usage of illustrations, the difference between major, chronic and minor incidents. What are the legal demands for describing these different types of incidents in your legal power? Incident is a happening of an event that has a non human component to it ( unlike accidents ) . Major incidents: Are sudden alterations which are dramatic, necessitate immediate responses, and are by and large dearly-won and a figure of human deaths. An illustration is methane gas effusions in belowground coal mines. Examples: Major fire, detonation Fatality Structural prostration Major equipment harm Major loss of production Typically cost 1000000s of moneys Chronic Incidents: Are events that result in an hurt ; is related to a figure of causes, and have effects that are lower in magnitude and strength than major incidents. Sometimes these events may do change in the normal processs in mines. Examples: Recuring quality divergence. Recuring equipment failure. System corrosion/erosion. Fleeting emanations. Slips, trips and falls. Minor Incidents: Or near miss incidents which do non involved in any loss or hurt but if a different event occurred, could do hurt or injury. When these incidents happened, the legal demand is 5 stairss: 1. Reporting 2. Gathering the Facts 3. Determine Cause ( s ) 4. Develop and Implement Corrective Action 5. Monitor and Review Discuss four theories of accident causing. Domino theory: It is developed by Herbert Hinrich ( Travelers Insurance Co ) in 1920.Says that hurts occur from actions that interact. The hurts are caused by insecure Acts of the Apostless by workers and are by and large preventable given proper safety preparation. It includes: Injuries arise from a set of complete actions Most hurts arise from insecure Acts of the Apostless Accidents are mostly preventable Insecure Acts of the Apostless can hold ulterior effects vs immediate Management should take control Harmonizing to Heinrich, five factors can take up to an accident: Lineage and societal environment Mistake of a individual Insecure mechanical or physical state of affairss The accident itself ( falls, being hit ) Injury: Typically lacerations and breaks Under this rubric, direction should take control and supply safety to workers. Human Factors Theory: Accidents are caused by human mistake under three chief factors: Overload ( instability in a individuals capacity ) Inappropriate Response: How a individual responds to a state of affairs Inappropriate Activity: Human mistake in judgement, action, way, etc. ) Accident and Incident Theory: Asper this theory, the environment is a cause alternatively of human mistake. The design and excessively high of outlook in work end product are the causes of accidents. Therefore, there is an indirect influence of direction and economic factors ( deadlines, agenda, budget, peer force per unit area etc. ) that can take to bad judgement and therefore accidents. The Accident and Incident Theory proposes a causal relationship exists between direction clime and focal point, and accident causing. Epidemiologic Theory: Accidents are caused by a ) sensitivity features ( cultural, physical charecteristics, societal norms ) B ) Situational characterisitics ( unequal preparation, small counsel, or direction Ã¢â¬Å" clime Ã¢â¬ ) . Under this theory there is a causing nexus between the environment and societal or mental factors. The Epidemiology theory holds that theoretical accounts used for survey and finding of disease can be utilized for accident causing as good ( a ) What is occupational hearing loss? A signifier of hearing loss due to the disfunction of the auditory nervus, ( i.e. hearing loss ) that is caused by the overexposure to noise degrees of high strength ) . This is besides called acoustic injury hearing loss Specify the footings frequence, strength, dubnium, dubnium ( A ) Frequency: The rate at which sound atoms vibrate through an elastic medium that the ear can comprehend as Ã¢â¬Ësound Ã¢â¬Ë . Frequency = Cycles per Second = Hertz = Hz 1000 Hz = 1 Kilohertz = 1 kilohertz = Human Voice Intensity: Intensity is the sum of energy going through a unit volume of air during a certain timeframe. dubnium: The dB ( dubnium ) is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical measure ( normally power or strength ) relation to a specified or implied mention degree. Amplitude = Loudness = Decibels = dubnium 60 dB = Average Speaking Voice dubnium ( A ) : It is the frequence response curve which is resembles the normal frequence hearing curve for most people. A metre utilizing this web will give a consequence which does hold some resemblance in degree to that degree which is experienced by most people The other manner we can state that, Noise is measured in dBs ( dubnium ) at a certain graduated table, such as A or C. The dB graduated table is logarithmic. That means, with a 5dB exchange rate, 95 dubnium is 100 % more noise than 90 dubnium. Specify the term Daily Noise Dose ; what factors influence this? Daily Noise Dose: The Daily Noise is an exposure criterion that measures the grade a individual working is able to be exposed to resound. Worksafe states that a degree of 85 dubnium ( S ) ( ie not additive criterion ) over 8 hr twenty-four hours ( much like the clip weight norm ( TWA ) exposure standard ) should non be breached, nor a peak degree of 140 dubniums at any specific clip should non be breached ( much like the TLV-STEL ) . If exposure to resound is to happen above these degrees a step of control upon noise is required. Harmonizing the National Institute for Occupational Safety Ã¢â¬â NIOSH Ã¢â¬â the day-to-day dosage degree Ã¢â¬â D Ã¢â¬â should non be or transcend 100. When the day-to-day noise exposure consists of periods of different noise degrees, the day-to-day dosage can be calculated as: D = ( te1 / td1 + te2 / td2 + Ã¢â¬ ¦ + ten / tdn ) 100 % A A A A A A A A A ( 1 ) where D = day-to-day noise exposure ( % ) Te = exposure clip at a specified noise degree td = maximal continuance clip at a specified noise degree The day-to-day dosage can be converted to an 8-hr Time-Weighted Average -TWA by the expression TWA = 10 log ( D / 100 ) + 85A A A A A A A A ( 2 )
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Throughout history western and eastern philosophies have developed a vast segregation from one another. The geographical and cultural distance between eastern and western civilization determined massive differences between the two. On the other hand, the works of ancient Greek philosophers like Socrates, and some eastern philosophies like Taoism have many of the same or common ideas and concepts. Both eastern and western philosophies regardless of having similarities have distinctive differences when examining the view of the conception of the good. In this rgard, each philosophy is noticed to have beliefs that strive for followers to improve their lives and to be on a path of self-purification. This essay will primarily focus onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦We can use our intuition to make the right choices in different situation and we can do this with out the baggage of the past. What we may learn is that movement and growth are a natural and necessary motion to becoming balanced . In order to become a virtuous person an individual must become one with the Tao, an example of a good life is found in Chuang Tzu Ã¢â¬â Basic writings, Ã¢â¬Å"If you do good, stay away from fame. If you do evil, stay away from punishments. Follow the middle; go by what is constant, and you can stay in one piece, keep yourself alive, look after your parents, and live out your years.Ã¢â¬ (Section three, p46). In order to become one with the Tao and individual must understand the Way and example of the Way Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦For this reason, whether you point to a little stalk or a great pillar, a leper or the beautiful Hsi-shih, things ribald and shady or things grotesque and strange, the Way makes them all into one.Ã¢â¬ (Section two, p. 36) The Way is having the ability to consider all things one. Looking at the creatures of the world without bias and treating everything and everyone as equal. In order to follow the Way one must gain enlightenment, to gain enlightenment one must h eavy focus on meditation. Taoists believe that time is cyclical, not linear as many in the West believe, therefore time repeats itself, has no beginning and no end. Tao is considered to be the first cause of the universe, and is the force thatShow MoreRelatedExistentialism vs Essentialism23287 Words Ã |Ã 94 Pages------------------------------------------------- Essentialism vs. Existentialism Essentialism: A belief that things have a set of characteristics that make them what they are, amp; that the task of science and philosophy is their discovery amp; expression; the doctrine that essence is prior to existence While, Existentialism:A philosophical theory or approach, that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free amp; responsible